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Of this Limited Letterpress Edition Seven 
Hundred and Fifty copies have been printed. 
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Travels in the Years 1791 and 1792 in 
Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont 

Journals of John Lincklaen ; Agent of the 
Holland Land Company. With a Bio- 
graphical Sketch and Notes. Illustrated. 
S° «<?/$2.5o 



Francis Adrian van dcr Kemp. 

^^'''^Frommiuiaiure. '' RiUer fecit. 1776." 




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JUL 24 1903 

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Copyright, 1903 



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ALTHOUGH portions of the autobiog- 
raphy of Francis Adrian van der Kemp 
have been pubHshed recently, both in this 
country and in Holland, and although it 
touches upon American history, it is believed 
to have appeared entire in print but once, in 
1837, in an English periodical now difficult to 
procure. The present edition has been com- 
pared with an autograph copy,^ and notes have 
been supplied, while, in order to make clearer 
Mr. Van der Kemp's political course in Hol- 
land, it has seemed necessary to add an ac- 
count, from his own point of view, of the 
Patriot movement in Holland, and of some of 
his countrymen who took part with him in this 
movement, and also in behalf of the American 
Revolution, especially the Barons van der 

' In the possession of the Buffalo Historical Society. Presented 
\>y Mrs. Bernard Henry. 


From Mr. J. A. Sillem's admirable paper on 
Capellen of Pol, much information has been 
drawn, and the indebtedness is here acknow- 
ledged, as well as the courteous aid of Messrs. 
F. Mailer & Co. of Amsterdam, Mr. J. Nan- 
ninga Uitterdyk, Archivist of Kampen, the late 
Mr. L. van Hasselt, Archivist of Zwolle, and 
Mr. A. J. van Laer, of the New York State 

Of Mr. van der Kemp's papers but few re- 
main. All documents relating to his public 
work in Holland were sent by him from Kings- 
ton to his friend Jan Jacob Cau, about 1790, 
and cannot now be traced. Letters from his 
correspondents in Europe and America during 
his life in the New World, with the exception 
of some from Jefferson and Clinton ^ and more 
than a hundred from John Adams ^ were for 
the most part returned or destroyed. Of let- 
ters written by van der Kemp himself, a great 
number were addressed to Adams, which Mr. 

' In possession of the Buffalo Historical Society. Presented by 
Mrs. Bernard Henry. 

"^ In possession of the Pennsylvania Historical Society. Presented 
by Mrs. Bernard Henry. 


Charles Francis Adams has kindly allowed to 
be consulted. From these letters and from 
certain others to DeWitt Clinton/ to Luzac, 
and to Peter Vreede, extracts have been taken 
— and in some cases made more concise — 
which add to the slender material for the story 
of his life beyond what he himself has recorded. 

The Buffalo, Pennsylvania, Oneida, Massa- 
chusetts, and Connecticut Historical Societies, 
and Columbia University, have kindly per- 
mitted the use of unpublished material from 
their collections. Passages have been quoted 
from Mr. Seymour's Centennial Address at 
Trenton, but the Address itself must be read 
for an account of Mr. van der Kemp's friends 
in Trenton, and for his Letters on a Tour of 
the Western District of this State in 1792, 
contained in the same volume. 

Mrs. Pauline Elizabeth Henry, the grand- 
daughter of van der Kemp, has permitted the 
photographing of his portraits, and it is with 
her sanction that the following pages are of- 
fered to such readers as may be interested in 

' Among the Clinton Papers, Columbia University. 

viii PREFACE. 

the period of which they treat, as m^inoircs 
pour servir for the personal history of a group 
of men in a foreign land, to whose good 
offices at a critical time the United States of 
America was greatly indebted. 

Helen Lincklaen Fairchild. 

Lorenzo, Cazenovia, N. Y., 
June, 1903. 


Introductory .... 
I, Early Years in Holland 
II. Political Work and Friendships 

III. Gown and Sword 

IV. Departure for America . 
V. Oneida Lake .... 

VI. Adam Gerard Mappa 
VII. Olden Barneyeld 
Appendices . 

Appendix A 

Appendix B 

Appendix C 

Note . 

List of Works by Francis Adrian 

der Kemp .... 
List of Principal Authorities 
sulted .... 







1 10 











Francis Adrian van der Kemp Frontispiece ^ 

From miniature. " Ritter fecit. 1776." 

Seal of Francis Adrian van der Kemp. . xii- 

Alexander van der Capellen . ... 28 

Baron Johan Derk van der Capellen of Pol, 30 

From engraving brought to America by F. A. van der 

Title-page of Speech against Lending the 

Scotch Brigade for Service in America, 38 

Peter Vreede 48 

Facsimile of Invitation from John Adams . 66 
Original owned by Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

John Luzac 68 

From engraving, n. d., S. Portman, sculp. 

Facsimile of Page of Book Containing List 

of Capellen of Pol's Property . . 70 

Pieter John van Berckel, First Minister 
FROM the United Netherlands to the 
United States 72 



Francis Adrian van der Kemp, 1787 . , 94 
From a portrait painted during his imprisonment in the 
Haazenberg, Town Hall of Utrecht, and given to his 
wife by a number of his friends. 

Baron Robert Jaspar van der Capellen of 

Marsch ........ 106 

Enlarged from small pencil drawing formerly owned by 
F. A. van der Kemp. Now in possession of Mrs. W. 
E. Ford, Utica, New York. 




IT is a strange web of political and personal 
associations which we must find on turn- 
ing to the study of any life which, under 
whatever sky of Christendom, has touched its 
meridian in the period of the French Revolu- 
tion. The old order is giving place to the 
new, and there seem gathered up in seventy 
brief years as many changes as Time usually 
allots to a much wider sweep of his sickle. 

The " tale that is told " of his days by 
Francis Adrian van der Kemp in the following 
pages was written for his only son. The story 
of his ancestors is found in a vellum-covered 
Geslacht Boeck, in which the family history 


has been entered ever since Mathys Bax, a 
citizen of Dordrecht, set himself in November, 
1698, being then no longer young, to copy 
" word for word " from an old Bible ninety 
years' records concerning his people. 

The story, commenced by Mathys's grand- 
father, Mathys Jansen, who married Adriana 
Bax at Delft about 1609, is continued by his 
father, Jan Mathysen Bax, who married Cor- 
nelia van Ablasen of Dort in 1639, and who 
carefully noted the births of his five children 
in the old book, as well as certain important 
simultaneous events. " My son Mathys was 
born Aug. 15, 1640, when they made the har- 
bour outside St. George's gate." " My son 
Cornelius, April 20, 1646, when the long 
wooden bridge was rebuilt." 

Jan Mathysen himself held many offices of 
trust. He died in 1683, and now lies "in the 
tomb of the Great Church, where his coat-of- 
arms is in the passage behind the choir." 

His daughter Adriana was born, April 6, 
1 65 1, Thursday before Easter, when, as he 
notes, "the wheels of the crane are being re- 


paired." Adriana married December 20, 1668, 
Gysbert van der Kemp, of a name already as- 
sociated with the family through the marriage 
of an uncle, and their son Peter married An- 
tonia van Drono-elen. 

In the next generation there was a son John 
van der Kemp, who, though bred for a mer- 
chant, entered the army in 1745, as Under- 
Lieutenant. In 1747, he was stationed with 
his regiment, that of the Prince of Birken- 
feld, at Breda. Here he was married in the 
French, or Walloon, church, on September 10, 
1 747, to Anna Catharina Leydekker, daughter 
of Francis Leydekker, Receiver-General of 
Ter Tholen, and Seneschal of St. Martensdyk, 
whose mother was Helena de Huybert, daugh- 
ter of Jan de Huybert, Lord of Westen 

The Zealand family of de Huybert, famed 
even among the Spanish for valour and wealth, 
had established itself in the fifteenth century 
at Zierikzee by the wish of the people, and 
there later was entrusted with the highest 
offices of government. To three sailor-sons 


of the race who carried PhiHp safely to Spain 
in their s\\\^ Julium, the Emperor MaximiHan 
gave the right to arm three servants, and to 
carry a sword, with a device which is still used — 
" three crowned kings with a closed helmet out 
of which comes an armed hand," with the 
legend, Waeckt Htiybert, "Watch Huybert." 

To John de Huybert, Cecilia de Witte, 
daughter of Jacob de Witte, Lord of Haam- 
steede, brought the same Haamsteede as her 
marriage portion. " From which marriage," 
writes John van der Kemp, the family chroni- 
cler in 1770, "were born, as I am informed, 
twenty-four children, of whom I have known 
four, besides Helena de Huybert, whose child 
was Anna Catharina Leydekker my wife." Van 
der Kemp sums up his own career in half a 
dozen modest lines: Cornet, Under-Lieutenant, 
Lieutenant, First Lieutenant by Commission, 
Captain, all entered in the old vellum-covered 

" I have been," he says, " in the battles of 
Fontenoy and Rocroy, in which I lost all my 
baggage. I have also been in the engagements 


of Maiden and Aste, and have made the other 
campaigns ; finally I have been in the pleasure 
camp of 1769." He continued in the army till 
his death at Maestricht in 1772, when of his 
seven children but three were living — the 
youngest, Cecilia Petronella,^ who did not 
marry till after her mother's death ; a son, 
Gysbert Antony, who went to the West Indies 
in 1777 in command of his troops and died 
at Batavia ; another son, the oldest, named 
Francis Adrian, after his maternal grandfather 
and his maternal uncle-in-law 'S Gravezande, 
preacher at Middelburg, and baptised by 
Dominie Ramboulet in the French church 
at Kampen, May 7, 1752, who sixty-five years 
later wrote, by his study fire in his remote 
American home, the following history of his 
eventful early life. 

' Cecilia Petronella married advocate W. C. van Wouw, May, 1791, 
and died at the birth of her daughter, Catharina Cecilia Petronella 
Constantia. She v/as married July 4, 18 13, to Ulrich Johannes 
Blankers Pasque at Geertruidenberg, and lived at Zvvyndrecht, near 
Dordrecht. They had seven children. 

F. A. v. D. K., MS., Genealogy. 


[F. A. van der Kemp was a correspondent of the late Rev. Dr. Joshua 
Toulmin, who introduced him as a correspondent to the late Rev. 
Theopliilus Lindsey. He is honourably mentioned in Mr. Belsham's 
Memoirs of the Essex Stj-eei Covfesso?- [Lindsey], pp. 225-272. He 
continued his correspondence with Mrs. Toulmin after her husband's 
decease, and communicated to her the following account of himself, 
not to be published during his lifetime. It is now put into our hands 
by the survivors in the family of Mrs. Toulmin ; and we lay it before 
our readers as an ingenuous account of a patriot and sincere Unitarian 
Christian. We have made no other alterations in it than by a few 
verbal corrections of the style of a foreigner. — Editor of The Christiatt 
Reformer J\ 



My dear Son. Although it has not fallen to my 
share to leave you wealth, yet consulting your 
wishes, it seemed to me that it might not be in- 
different to you to be informed by myself of the 
principal events of your Father's chequered life. It 
may enhance this gift in some respect in your estim- 

' From The Christian Reformer, London, No. xli., vol. iv.. May 



ation that it is voluntary. I declined it to a worthy 
patron and friend: it is true indeed I doubted that it 
might not afford him much satisfaction and I dreaded 
to cause disappointment : Charles Eliot urged once 
the same point, with somewhat more eagerness, and 
was seconded by his sister ; and yet I continued to 
hesitate, as I was not vain enough to expect that I 
could, through these means, persuade them that their 
distinguished kindness had been no more than I 
deserved : In this case I would soon have passed 
the Rubicon. A son reads with quite another 

I do not examine with scrupulous anxiety, if 
pride in an honourable ancestry is a venial or deadly 
sin ; but this I know, that even when a boy, I felt an 
exquisite delight, that I could, that I might call 
loudly my ancestors by name ; that I could celebrate 
their virtues, their prowess in arms, their great 
renown in literature, without apprehension of meet- 
ing with obloquy or contradiction. From my Father's 
side, the van tier Kemps, the Bax, the van Dron- 
gelens^ — from my mother's, the Leydekkers^ the de 
Huyberts, the de Witts^ Lords of Haamsteede, with 
their numerous alliances, — were so many spurs to 
him, in whose breast the last spark of glory was not 
extinguished for their emulation. 

My worthy Father, educated for a merchant, 

' This house dates from the thirteenth century. 

'^Of Middelburg, Zealand. A cultured race of whom Melchior 
(died 1721) was the most eminent. 

^See Kok for the history of this fami'y from the thirteenth 


entered the army in 1745, and was present in the 
battles of Lawfelt' [Lauffeld], Roucoux, with the 
rencontres 2X Aste and Maiden. He married in 1747 
Anna Catharina, only heir of Francis Leydekker, 
Receiver-General of Ter Tholen in Zealand, Drossard 
of St. Martensdyk, and Helena de Huybert. 

I was born in Kampen in Overyssel on May 4, 
1752, where the regiment in which my Father served 
was then garrisoned. Even when in the cradle, my 
good Mother too fondly anticipated that I should 
be once devoted to studies, because forsooth ! as she 
seriously assured me, when I was unruly I became 
soon appeased whenever any books were thrown to 
me, but another childish event made a deeper im- 
pression upon her. My School Madam, either to 
silence our importunate questions, or lure us to her 
views, often held out the prospect that she would 
treat us with pricken, a species of fish broiled in 
butter. When at church, and standing before my 
Mother in her pew, the Minister Rev. — Hubert ex- 
claimed : " Death, where is thy sting?" (in Dutch 
prickel.) I replied : " Pricken broiled in butter are 
good, but we eat roast beef and grey peas " ; after 
this observation I was silent. 

Be these praecocis ingenii prognostics true or false, 
one thing is sure, — and this I considered always as a 
chief blessing, although I valued it not always as I 
ought to have done,and in some cases abused it, — that 
unconsciously I gained the good-will and affection 
of all around me. 

' Near Maestricht. 


As soon as my Father supposed that I was suffi- 
ciently instructed in the Dutch and French languages, 
he sent me to a Latin School at Zutphen in Gelder- 
land. My progress was rather slow, without any brill- 
iant proficiency ; yet when, the 14th January, 1763, I 
left the first for the second class, I was rewarded 
with Nieupoort de Ritibiis Romafioriini. From Zut- 
phen my parents moved to Zwolle in Overyssel, 
where I entered once more the first class, and was 
gradually advanced to the fourth, although my com- 
petitors for the first prize were every time too 
powerful. As far as I can recollect, I rose seldom 
higher than the third in rank. The Rev. — Serrurier,' 
a clergyman of eminent abilities and our nearest 
neighbour, told my Mother, that in his opinion I 
should never arrive at any eminence as a man of 
letters. He advised her to choose another profession. 

This insinuation induced my Parents, who could 
not brook [the idea] that I should not rise above 
mediocrity, in part to accept the proffer of plac- 
ing me as Cadet in a company of Infantry,'' in the 
Regiment of Holtein Gottorp, in the year 1764, 
without however discontinuing my application to 
the Greek and Latin languages. In 1766, I took the 
same station in my Father's regiment,' when we 
removed from Zwolle to Bois-le-Duc ; where I once 
more entered the third class, was encouraged to 

'Jan Jacob (b. 1727) descended from a race of preachers, was 
minister at Zwolle, and later at The Hague. 
'Captain Muntz's. 
^ Of Cavalry, of Lieutenant-General de Famars. 


further progress in Greek and Latin Literature in 1 768 
with the prize of Sanctii Minerva Perisonii, and in 
1769 with Biinnanii Poeviata in 4to, when 1 entered 
the last class : while I received at the same time priv- 
ate instructions by Professor Chaufepie' in Greek, 
and by Professor de Witt in the rudiments of Hebrew, 
as my Father seriously hoped, that he might devote 
me to the Church, and fostered warm prejudices 
about the name of van der Kemp — as if talents were 
an heritage ! It weighed much with this worthy man 
that he could not perceive any predilection for a mil- 
itary life, and he presumed to predict that a contem- 
plative one would be more congenial to my character. 
In this he was confirmed by the following event, at 
least he was pleased to give it this explanation. 

An encampment, which was ordered in 1769, would 
have been a serious and expensive obstruction to my 
studies, and useless if I quitted the military career; 
but my Father peremptorily declined to intercede in 
my favor, to obtain an exemption ; he could not 
brook a refusal, and would not ask it of the Prince 
of Hesse," but left it willingly to me to act as I 
deemed proper. I paid then a visit to his Highness, 
solicited the boon, and on his abrupt repulse in- 
stantly requested my dismission from service, which 
I obtained. Scarcely had I returned under the pa- 

' George Abraham, minister of French church at 'S Bosch, where 
in 1760 he was made Professor in Greek at the " Illustre School." 
Died 1773. 

"^ Frederik, Prince of Hessen-Cassel (1747-1837), son of Frederik and 
Maria, daughter of George II.; in April, 1768, " General Major" of 


ternal roof, than, in answer to the questions of my 
Father on the result, I threw my miHtary accoutre- 
ments on the floor, and told him I had obtained my 
dismission. I went nevertheless with my Father's 
consent to the encampment for a few days, and paid 
there my respects to the same Prince, who asked me 
with a sneer, if this visit did not interfere with my 
studies. "It would have done so, Prince! had I 
complied with your Highness's commands, to make a 
sacrifice of so many months as I now do of days, to 
witness the gallantry of your valiant regiment." 

In the examination of the summer season in 1770, I 
received [a prize] Jjinius dc Pictiira Vctcrnui,7x.\\d. was 
deemed by the Regents qualified for the University. 

I left my paternal home in August, 1770, for Gro- 
ningen's University,' and devoted the two first years 
to the elementary studies, hearing the lectures of Pro- 
fessor Jac. de Rhoer^ in Latin and Greek; Professor 
Nic. Schroeder^ in Oriental languages, and Le Sage 
Ten Broek and Widder in philosophy, viz. Meta- 
physicks. Natural History, Cosmology, neglecting 
too much the Mathesis, of which I afterwards could 
only obtain a very superficial knowledge. Besides 
these important occupations I received private in- 
struction in the English and Italian languages, being 
already deep enough initiated in the French and Ger- 
man to draw benefit from their authors. Serrurier's 

' He spent four years there. 
"^ 1720-1813. Famous in his day. 

^ Nicolaas Willem (1729-1798). "This great man was known 
everywhere as the Arabian." 


ominous prediction, and my determination to leave 
nothing untried, to soar if possible above medioc- 
rity, made me exert all my strength with a view to 

Ere long my health was impaired by chemical 
experiments, by extravagant studies, allowing myself 
but seldom five hours rest, often contented with 
two and three, often taking no rest at all. A seem- 
ingly broken constitution was now further shaken 
by alarming convulsions, but Professor Camper's ' 
art, and my listening to his advice, restored me to 
health. I now studied standing at the desk, took 
more rest, and recovered perfectly. I had provided 
me with a library rather more voluminous and ele- 
gant than my situation permitted or required, my 
Uncle 'S Gravezande 2 instilling continually in my 
mind, " Beware of the man who studies a few books, 
makes a choice of the best, and uses these night and 
day." But I was careful to arm myself at the end 
of every year with recommendations of my profess- 
ors, which I obtained liberally and often unsolicited, 
with high encomiums of other friends ; and this 
failed not to atone for my excesses in spending far 
more than was convenient in my situation. 

My Father died January 27, 1772. This was a 
doleful event indeed, losing in him a tender Father 
and affectionate friend, whose worth was valued by 
all who knew him. My mother's situation, bereft 

' Petrus (1722-1789). A distinguished man, In 1763 made pro- 
fessor at Groningen of medicine, surgery, and botany. 

* Adrianus. Preacher at Asperen. His wife was Anthonia van der 
Kemp, sister of John. 


by his death of this support, obliged her to a yet 
more rigid economy, which however had before been 
her constant practice, and compelled her to submit 
to my dependence on my Uncle chiefly, to provide 
for the future expenses of my studies. 

In the third year of my studies I tacked to my 
former studies a course of lectures in botany by Pro- 
fessor Camper, early in the morning before breakfast, 
that of Ecclesiastical History under Professor Paul 
Chevalier and those of the famous van der Marck ' on 
Ecclesiastical Laws and the Laws of Nature. 

I was prompted to this outstep, as I doubted if 
I could finally enter the sacred fold ; but if so, both 
these branches were useful to any clergyman. Some 
of my connections among the military young men, 
my former comrades in my classic studies, had been 
initiated in the mysteries of the Deistical school. As 
their conversations and the writings of their admired 
Authors were pleasing to the imagination, embel- 
lished by taste and brilliancy of wit, I devoured 
these with greediness ; and as I was not imbued 
with a solid knowledge of the Christian Revelation, 
I was dazzled and misled by their fair appearance, 
by their sophisms, through want of fixed principles 
before I perceived it. To this was joined a deep 
hatred of the clerical hierarchy and their continued 
usurpations, while their persecuting zeal threw me 
ere long off my guard and made me enter the ranks 
of their opponents. 

Associating with young men of the first families 
^ Frederik Adolph (i 719-1800). 


in the Republic, of the nobility as well as gentry, 
arguing in public theses against the dominion of 
the clergy, their rage was soon raised to the highest 
pitch. It was in vain that my friends and patrons 
pleaded my cause and palliated my imprudence ; I 
was to them a reprobate old in sin though young in 
years. In some respects I am in duty bound to 
acknowledge, they treated me with condescending 
kindness, inviting me, often directly, more however 
through their children and relatives to their houses, in 
the hope, as they protested, to save me. It is true 
they had no reason to complain of my conduct. 
Although prudence was not always my guide, yet 
my errors were unknown ; my intimacy with the best 
of their students was in my favour ; it was rather a 
deep rooted hatred towards Professor van der Marck, 
than a well pointed enmity towards me. They com- 
plained of me to my Uncle, drew me before an 
Ecclesiastical tribunal of professors and ministers, 
and threatened that I should become ere long an 
outcast and be treated as such, if I did not abandon 
the lectures of van der Marck, with the company of 
my associates, purify my library, and renew my 
former course and studies, in conformity to the 
wishes of my relatives; then I should be cordially 
received, then again be favoured with their protecting 

Rejecting all proposals of reconciliation on such 
terms with disdain, unwilling to give up my Master's 
cause, though that good man urged me to comply, 
seeing I had no prospect whatever of being sup- 


ported by my relatives, I resolved to sell my library, 
a few select books excepted, to pay my debts, and 
'maintain myself in independence a while longer. 
This plan I executed as soon as the catalogue could 
be printed, devoted myself entirely to the study of 
the political state of my country, chiefly its Jus 
Publictcm, its customs, usages and form of govern- 
ment, resolved to abstain from my usual dinner at 
the ordinary, and contented myself with bread, 
butter and cheese, and a glass of wine, with which I 
was provided, as I could not stoop to continue, as 
my comrades solicited, to take the same fare with 
them in a public house, at their expense. My pa- 
trons among the professors continued to favour me, 
even some who disapproved or lamented my way- 
wardness, by which they without intending it en- 
couraged me to proceed. 

Several of the first families, the Ladies Mancel 
van Birum, the Goekingas, Turck, Feldman, the 
Revs. — Blaeu and Jansonius continued to favour me 
with their kindnesses, while the first of these ma- 
trons opened me liberally her purse ; while Professor 
Paulus Chevalier, to prevent the scandal which he 
said he dreaded from a public sale, bought my col- 
lection of French Deistical writers. I need not to 
insinuate that I was impeccable ; you could not be- 
lieve it did I make such an attempt, my passions 
were violent and too often indulged, but more than 
once I was wonderfully spared. I owed their good 
will chiefly to their noble and generous minds, and 
in some respects to my unrelenting endeavours to 


save an outward decorum, to be courteous and con- 
descending towards superiors, more so toward the 
females, firm and daring among my equals, kind to 
servants, and devoting nights and days, when not 
given to pleasure, to my studies. 

I wrote now a warm defence of my Master against 
the clergy, and published the fruits of my leisure 
hours, a small essay entitled My Amusements, re- 
printed in 1777. I could not fix on a plan, and re- 
mained thus in a critical state of suspense. My 
young friends, many of the first families and nobility, 
but without the means to assist me, wished that I 
should endeavour to reconcile my relatives to obtain 
of them the permission to study the law, but I knew 
this was in vain, except the respectable clergy had 
been willing to support my entreaties; but this body 
was then too much exasperated to expect from it 
such a condescension. I had formed already many 
connections with learned characters in Holland, 
chiefly among the Remonstrants, and entered into 
correspondence with the Rev. Joshua Toulmin' at 
Taunton, to whom I had been recommended by the 
Rev. Sowden of Rotterdam. 

From all these I received wise and salutary ad- 
vices, but no effectual aid. At this period I received 
an offer of a civil employ at St. George Delmina on 

1 Born 1740. Baptist Minister at Taunton, England, later a Socin- 
ian, and Minister in the New Meeting, Birmingham, 1804." — " Last 
week's London letter informed me of the death of my oldest friend. 
Dr. Joshua Toulmin, since 1772 a guide of my youth, and since my 
constant warm friend. MS. letter to Adams, Jan. 9, 1816. 


the African coast, on the recommendation of Professor 
van der Marck. Shortly after another to go with a 
young gentleman as his Governour to the West 
Indies ; and, at the same time a generous proposal, 
to continue my studies in Divinity at the Seminary 
of the Remonstrants at Amsterdam, with the assur- 
ance that in all my expenses should be provided. 
However flattering the latter was, however warmly 
seconded by disinterested advisers, I found myself 
compelled to decline it because one of the great 
pretended crimes of my Master was, that he was an 
Arminian, that he instilled those principles into his 
students, because it would have been considered as 
a proof of their accusation, and because I would not 
hurt the keenest feelings of my nearest relatives, 
who in many respects remained dear to my heart. 
I knew myself too well to accept the guidance of 
a youth, when I was scarce to be trusted to regulate 
my own conduct. 

The inhospitable coast of Delmina seemed now 
my only refuge when it struck my mind, that the 
Baptists at Amsterdam were reputed to be of exten- 
sive liberal principles, that I was intimate with some 
wealthy and learned members of this community, 
Professor Oosterbaen at Amsterdam, the Rev. John 
Stinstra at Harlingen, and, through his recommend- 
ation, with the family of Hoofman at Haerlem. I re- 
solved then to open my mind to ProfessorOosterbaen, 
ask him for support to promote my studies at Am- 
sterdam in their Seminary, " z/ I could be admitted 
without compromising myself in any manner, without 


constraint to any religious opinions I might foster 
or adopt in future, and with a full assurance, that 
I should be decently supported "; all which was gen- 
erously accepted, and Oosterbaen actually acted and 
proved himself to me a friend and benefactor, a guide 
and father. 

I left thus Groningen to remain, during the va- 
cancy, at the University of Franeker, being there 
gratified with the rooms and library of my friend 
Chaudoir, then a candidate of the Gallican Church, 
and on a visit to his parents. 

I left that place in September, 1773, for Amster- 
dam, to enter on a new course of studies among the 
Baptists. As soon as I was arrived at the rooms 
procured for me by Professor Oosterbaen, with my 
small though select library augmented with a few 
authors indispensably required, I resolved seriously 
to begin my inquiry in the truth and nature of the 
Christian Revelation. Armed with the necessary 
knowledge of ancient and modern history, civil and 
ecclesiastical, with church antiquities and a tolerable 
supply of classic literature, I endeavoured to lay 
aside all preconceived prejudices, and desired with 
sincerity to discover the truth ; at least I imagined 
myself to be in this mood, and believe yet that it 
was so. 

I remained in my study and continued my in- 
quiries night and day, taking no more rest than was 
imperiously required, and was within a short time, 
fully convinced of the historical truth of the Chris- 
tian revelation. Having re-examined the whole 


chain of arguments, no doubt remained lurking in 
my breast ; but the grand question remained, " What 
is the Christian religion ? Shall I learn it from the 
lectures of Professor Oosterbaen, a man so learned, 
so pious, so generous towards me, and preach to 
others the doctrine which* he has examined and 
adopted as true?" To this I could not submit; 
my heart revolted at the idea of such a slavery : I 
took some time to consider this important subject. 
It was clear if I might not implicitly trust Professor 
Oosterbaen, as an infallible guide with all his mental 
endowments, then, still less I ought to trust to dog- 
matical writers, of whatever authority they might be 
deemed in any church. I ought thus, this only 
remained, to examine for myself. I took it for 
granted, and am not yet undeceived, if I was then 
in an error, I took it for a truth, that if the Christian 
Revelation is from God, then any one, even of the 
meanest understanding, with a sincere heart, may, 
vuist be able to discover God's will, viz. what he is to 
do and to believe for his salvation. 

On this ground I took the New Testament in Greek 
in hand, resolved to pass by all which I did not under- 
stand at first view. So I read the New Testament, 
I mean the Evangelists and Acts, again and again, 
until I was convinced that Jesus came into the world 
to bring life and immortality to light, which was un- 
discoverable by the light of reason ; that a merciful 
God required from frail creatures sincerity of heart 
and genuine repentance; that to love Him and one's 
neighbour was the summary of the doctrine of Jesus, 


the true characteristics of the genuine believer; and 
that it was the will of our Heavenly Father that all 
His children should be saved. I did not discover, 
neither searched for, the dogmas of Calvin, Socinus, 
Arminius, or Menno ; neither cared much about these 
matters except in a literary point of view; and so and 
not further did I intend to pay any attention to them. 
I explained myself faithfully and with candour to my 
friend, and deemed it a duty in my situation to make 
a public profession of my religious principles, and 
received baptism at Amsterdam from the worthy 
van Heiningen in November, 1773.' 

I punctually attended during two years the lectures 
of Professor Oosterbaen and van der Marck in the- 
ology and of D. Wyttenbach in the Greek language; 
while I only devoted a small portion of my time to 
Mathematics, in which I was unsuccessful. About 
this time I entered in correspondence with several 
learned men in Germany, among others with Spald- 
ing and Dam at Berlin, Arnoldi at Herborn, Faber 
at Berg-Zabern, Zlapfer at Zurich, and Lazar de 
Torotske at Clausenberg in Transylvania. 

On the i8th December, 1775, I was admitted 
as a candidate of the sacred ministry, received a call 
in the city of Ter Goes in Zealand, ist May, 1776; 
on the 3rd of June another in the village of Makkum 

' " The Baptists of the Netherlands never had power, never could 
aim at it, by their tenets, they must not, cannot be confounded with 
the Anabaptists of Munster and Germany who were fanatics." 

MS. letter to Adams, Aug. ii, 1812. 

" I joined the Baptists' meeting at the Tower and Lamb, at- 
tracted by their toleration." — MS., Genealogy. 


in Friesland, both which I declined; on the 25th 
of July that of Huyzen in Holland, and on the ist 
of August that of West Zaandam were offered, the 
former of which I accepted ; entering shortly after 
on my ministerial career, when I preached from ist 
Cor. X., 15. It was indeed a pleasant situation not 
far from the sea-coast ; my parishioners, fishermen 
and farmers, most of them in easy circumstances, the 
members of my consistory well instructed men, and 
all bent with eagerness to render my abode with 
them comfortable. Here I translated although in 
part only, Ganganelli's Letters, upon the advice of 
my friend Oosterbaen, who by this work intended to 
ameliorate my situation ; but this good man was 
obliged ere long to take the whole burden on him- 
self, while he allowed me the full benefit of his work; 
" Although you cannot submit to the drudgery, you 
shall not destroy my good intention," he said. 

On the 7th of December I received an invitation 
from the congregation at Aerdenberg in Flanders, if 
I inclined to come thither. The 30th of July next I 
was requested to preach at Leyden and the 4th of 
August at Middelburg in Zealand, and was chosen 
as minister in the congregation at Leyden on the ist 
of October where I began my ministerial labours on 
the 13th of November with my inaugural sermon on 
Rom. i., 20. 

My cousin Didericus van der Kemp ' was a Pro- 
fessor of Divinity in the University, and although a 

' 1 731-1780. Son of Cornells and grandson of Johannes, both 
clergymen. The famous Jean Theodore van der Kemp of Rotterdam, 


man of the most amiable character was one of the 
chiefs of the orthodox party, and had entered the 
h'sts with Professor Bonnet of Utrecht against 
Goodricke to oppose liberal principles, and destroy 
tolerantism within the pale of the church. He was 
affable and courteous towards me, as well as to all 
out of the boundaries, but would not commune with 
a doubtful brother; he said he approved my sincerity 
but lamented my errors : they were the offspring — it 
was revived — of van der Marck's tuition. There was 
an immense conflux at my inaugural discourse of all 
ranks and classes. I did not give offence, except 
that a few old members of my congregation shud- 
dered, when I told them that my Father followed the 
army, and that I served in it during five years. The 
Dutch Baptists condemn the use of arms in any case. 
It was not long ere I had a serious struggle with 
my consistory. Through neglect or carelessness the 
disposal and management of an institution for pious 
purposes, in behalf of the poor of the church, had 
been lost, or surrendered to the Magistracy and a 

cavalry officer, physician, and at last missionary and founder of 
Bethelsdorp in Africa, was a brother of Didericus, as was also 
Johannes Cornelis of Leyden. 

Chalmot in some points confounds van der Kemp with his cousin 
Theodorus, who publicly disclaimed Francis Adrian's politics, and 
with whom the latter differed equally in religion. 

" I knew him well. He was a man of vast learning and profound 
mind, . . . and surprising talents, ... by which I often have 
been benefited. I cannot envy the situation of his last years. . . . 
There has been a striking . . . coincidence in many respects of 
our lives, and we may at length arrive at the same goal by a different 
course. . . ." — MS. letter to Lincklaen, Apr. 8, 1816. 


wealthy family of my congregation. I urged, long 
in vain, that this property ought to be restored, that 
it was a duty; at length I told them I should do it, 
and leave no stone unturned till I had recovered the 
possession, and restored to the church its inalienable 
rights. I was on a good footing with the Pensionary 
of the city, the Hon. Mr. van Royen, and intimate 
with Peter Vreede, whose Father made this encroach- 
ment ; while he was dying, I would not embitter his 
last moments; but no sooner was he gone to his 
Fathers, than I renewed with increased ardour my 
enterprise and saw it crowned with full success, when 
the full consistory could not but thank me, though 
not with the best grace. They dared to propose to 
me the subscription of formularies and a creed, 
which all their former ministers had complied with ; 
my colleague seconded the importune demands of 
the large majority ; two only supported me. One 
session followed the other. Reasoning, ridicule, all 
was employed, long in vain, till at length having 
exhausted their patience, and convinced of my 
unwillingness to give way one single hair-breadth, 
one and another from time to time leaving their 
side, all submitted to annul forever tlie articles of 

' "To-day the Mennonites have no test, no church, no rite, no 
clergy, but fraternities, in wliich the minister is the ' voorganger ' or 
leader, though his education, social position, and general duties are 
like those of all Protestant ministers. In Amsterdam they have their 
own seminary and their Professors are much honoured, their teaching 
appeals not only to the religious, but very strongly to the ethical and 
moral tendencies of humanity." — Dutch Life in Totuii and Country, 
p. 243- 


I dare say I made no abuse of my success, by 
which I gained the good-will of my colleague, and 
many of his adherents, who regretted that I was not 
cast in a more serious mould, and to appearances, 
and in reality too worldly minded. 

Several circumstances concurred by which at this 
period my political connections were renewed, and 
first in Holland, soon in the other Provinces; among 
these with van Berckel,' Paulus," de Gyzelaer," and 
Baron van der Capellen tot den Pol. 

' Engelbert Fran9ois van Berckel; or his brother Pieter Johan 
van Berckel, the first Minister from the United Provinces to the 
United States, who died at Newark, New Jersey, October 27, 1800. 

"Pieter Paulus. Born 1754. A Dutch statesman " avocat at 
conseiller fiscal de I'Amiraute de le Meuse." In two years he 
brought the Dutch navy up from its ruins to forty ships of the line, 
all nearly new. He was dismissed from office in 1787 in spite of his 
high standing. He went to Versailles, and was received with dis- 
tinction. Returning to Holland he held many offices after the fall of 
the Stadtholderate, until his death in 1796. His best known work is 
that on the Union of Utrecht. See Michaud. 

"Cornells de Gyzelaer, 1751-1815. Pensionary of Dort from 
1779 till the revolution of September, 1787. He was in Amsterdam 
when the Prussians captured the city; afterwards remained for some 
time in Harlem, and then went to Brussels with his family. In 1799 
he returned to Holland, and lived at Leyden until his death. 

" M. Gyzelaer [Pensionary of DortJ is a young gentleman of about 
thirty; but of a genius and activity, a candour and prudence, which, if 
his health is not too delicate, must make him the man of the first 
consideration in this Republic. I am happy in a friendly and 
familiar acquaintance with him, and shall certainly continue it, because 
his abilities and integrity, his industry, his great and growing popu- 
larity, and his influence in the Assembly of the States of Holland, as 
well as in all the Provinces and cities, will render him an important 
man, in spite of all the opposition of the Court." — Adams to Living- 
ston, Sept. 4, 1782. Dip. Corres., vol. iii., p. 637. 



WHEN van der Kemp first met Capellen 
of Pol is not known, but he was the 
bosom friend of that nobleman, of whom he 
says that he laid his whole soul open to him, 
consulted him in everything, and confided to 
him his most secret plans.^ Long years after 
he brought with him to America the portrait 
of Baron Johan Derk, as also one of Baron 
Robert Jaspar van der Capellen of Marsch in 
Gelderland, his cousin. Both were of that 
House of Capellen^ which is said to have 
taken its name from the Chaplains, or Capel- 
lani, of the Court of France. By the twelfth 
century many branches were living in the 
Netherlands. Its annals, reaching back during 

' See Hartog, Uit de dagcn der Patriotten, p. 55. ' See Kok. 


seven hundred years, recall Motley's simile 
of some well-kept tapestry, crowded with an- 
tique figures upon a background of mediaeval 
town and country, for here are Cunegondas 
and Enguerrands, Priors, Abbesses, owners 
of much land in the Cleves and Guelders 
country, knights summoned against the com- 
mon enemy, slain in the wars, abjuring the 
King of Spain, signing the Union of Utrecht, 
Knights of Malta — each and all bearing the 
arms "with the chapel on the cross." The 
earliest known ancestor was Hendrik, a power- 
ful and distinguished Knight, a.d. 1287, whose 
children had possessions in the land of Cleves, 
and his great-grandson Gerlach when he left 
his father's house in 1378 to dwell in Zutphen, 
received from his relatives as a parting re- 
membrance a drinking cup in the form of a 
silver-gilt chapel, which descended in his family 
until, in 1572, it was lost at the sacking of the 
city by the younger Alva. 

Gerlach married a daughter of the old 
and noble family of van der Marsch, of the 
House of Marsch near Zutphen, and founded 


the Zutphen branch of the van der Capellen 

Four generations more, of men holding posts 
of honour, and we come to another Gerlach, 
Burgomaster of Zutphen in 1505, and to the 
opening times of the " Spanish Tyranny," and 
find one "who walked in the footsteps of his 
fathers and ancestors," Hendrik of Overyssel, 
a defender of the faith and liberty of his 
Fatherland, for forty years Burgomaster of 
Zutphen, signing at the head of the magistracy 
of that city the Union of Utrecht. So well did 
he serve his country — so well did he garrison 
his city — that when, for the first time after 
his death in 1582, Zutphen fell into the enemy's 
hands, they not only " razed his ancestral 
houses in the Water Street," confiscated his 
property and proscribed his memory, but were 
hardly restrained from tearing his body from its 
grave in the great church at Zutphen, where 
at the age of seventy-six years he had been 
gathered to his fathers. 

The youth of his eldest son Gerlach, born in 
1543, was in the peaceful times before the 


troubles. He studied at Cologne, Geneva, 
Basel, Heidelberg, and Rome, then " returned 
to his Fatherland in Peril " at the outbreak of 
hostilities, when he was twenty-five years of 
age. For more than fifty years to come he 
was to risk his life in the great cause in which 
Hendrik had yet fourteen years to serve. 

Neither father nor son regarded life or for- 
tune except so far as bloed en geld might serve 
their country in her mighty struggle for civil 
and religious liberty. In his eighty-second 
year Gerlach, too, was buried in the great 
church, — the beautiful St. Walburga Kerk ^ — 
of Zutphen, having outlived all his country- 
men of Gelderland, who went hand in hand 
with him in the founding of the Republic. 

The lot of his son Alexander fell in more 
peaceful times. He too was a man of learn- 
ing — a student at Leyden of great attainments. 
Living long in France, he was entrusted with 
the conduct of many diplomatic affairs, but 

' Many of the Capellens rest here, but the monuments to Hendrik 
and Gerlach and the grave where the former lies, found by accident in 
i8g5, were shown with especial interest by the custodian, G. J. Meme- 
link. in i8q6. 

then " retu. .. 
. _ ■ the outbreak rf 

«; was twenty-1 
ipre than fifty years to con 
lis life in the great cause in which 
1 yet fourteen 
\ ,or son le or tor- 

tunv'; except so tar as bloeci ' ' serve 

their country in b^r —'■ '^ i-r civil 

and rrXxcA.Alexander van dcr Capellen.. -rond 

vear 'i 


as a man 



greater interest lies for us in the fact that his 
elder brother Hendrik sig^ned on behalf of the 
West India Company Peter Stuyvesant's com- 
mission as Director of New Netherland, and 
both brothers through their purchase of Staten 
Island and also of " land of the Navesinck and 
Raritans " ^ made what proved to be the " last 
effort to plant colonies under Patroons in 
America," ~ and first linked the name of van 
der Capellen with our own country more than 
two hundred years ago. 

So as we approach the eighteenth century, 
the family in all its branches, in its twelfth re- 
corded generation, holds its own. The men 
are still in the military or diplomatic service, 
their brides still have goodly dowries, like 
Ermengarde de Landas, who brings to the 
grandfather of Baron van der Capellen " Ap- 
peltern" and "Altforst," lying in their beauti- 
ful pasture grounds in the Maaswaal, while 
among the sixteen quarterings of their son 
Frederik, who rests in the great church of 

' See Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of 
New York, vol. i., p. 493; vol. xiv., pp., 168, 393. 

'See Schuyler's Colonial New York, vol. i., pp. 21, 24, et seq. 


Arnheim, are the arms of the House of Bre- 
derode, proverbially the most noble in the 
land. Nor was Johan Derk, the child of Fred- 
erik borne to him by his wife- Elizabeth van 
Bassenn, to prove himself unworthy of the 
line of which he was later believed to be so 

Robert Jaspar, his cousin, was descended 
from the same paternal great-grandfather, and 
was known as Baron van der Capellen of Marsch 
and Lathmer. He studied at the University 
of Utrecht at the same time with Johan Derk, 
where their close intimacy ripened into what 
was to be a lifelong friendship. These two 
young nobles in the gay dress, and doubtless 
of the gay carriage, of the pruiken-tyd, seem 
in their sense of political responsibility grave 
beyond their years, though both came natur- 
ally through training and tradition by their 
liberal ideas. 

Resolving, whatever Neptune might ordain, 
to keep their rudder true, to oppose despotism 
at whatever cost, the young pilots carefully 
studied the principles of government, a share in 

'119, wife-EHza^ 
By ■ iworthx 

1 he was later believed to be so 

Robert Jaspa was descended 

irom the same pat€ 

"^^^^Mn^oMPDh'k vanddi^ mpelleiibfPoL 

and \f^^^^i^'^ving%\ouiyhl to America hy^FyAy^'nh-^'ddr-Wi^ff. 

\ i' 



a.iiu Lrcicp 

to ke^.^ 

le, to o 



studied the [ 

I share in 


which, in the ordinary course of things, would 
soon be entrusted to them in their respective 
State Assembhes. 

On the most elaborated page in Johan 
Derk's Liber Amicortim which has come 
down from those boyish days, is a finished 
little coloured drawing of two hands clasped 
over an altar, with the Capellen arms on its 
base, and the date of 1762, It is needless to 
translate the motto, the quotation, the senti- 
ment ; all breathe eternal friendship, for the 
name below is " R. J. van der Capellen." 

But there had evidently been time for mak- 
ing other friends under the green domes of the 
lime-trees of the Maliebaan, or by the precincts 
of the University. The Liber Antic or um zon- 
tains the names of nearly forty students, all 
written at Traj : ad R hen., between the dates 
of March, 1760, and November, 1764, each 
under a sentiment, and a quotation flanked by 
a motto, usually in Latin. 

Among its pages is one signed by Baron 
Robert Jaspar's brother, Alexander Philip van 
der Capellen, who was later to die a martyr to 


the Patriot cause. Other names are there, 
which afterwards became known in the Patriot 
annals — but none were written in the Httle 
book after 1 764. 

Johan Derk van der Capellen was more 
closely allied than Robert Jaspar with van der 
Kemp during that turbulent revolutionary 
"patriot-time preceding the Prussian invasion, 
when no man was more talked of, more hated, 
more loved than he." The liberal cause so 
dear to his heart was for a time to be strangely 
interwoven with that of the United States. 
In three distinct emergencies Baron Johan 
Derk served us well, and the course of his 
short life should not be without interest for 

He was born at Tiel, November 2, 1741, 
the eldest son of Frederik Jacob van der 
Capellen, Major of Infantry, and his wife 
Anna Elizabeth, daughter of Dirck Reinier 
van Bassenn, " of an old and noble race, which, 
unlike most of the Guelder families, and espec- 
ially those of the Ridders of the Veluwe, was 
not one of the pillars of the House of Orange." 


Thus the storms of van Bassenn's public life, 
when he stood for " the old privileges," had 
made it a short one, and he found it better to 
leave Arnheim and spend the many years 
remaining to him in a new home at Tiel. 

Here his daughter was married, and here her 
husband left her and her children to spare them 
the changes of garrison life. Celebrated as 
van Bassenn was for the breadth of his know- 
ledge, the delight and instruction of his daily 
companionship, it was well that his grandson's 
education was entrusted to him. This inter- 
course with a man of seventy to whom a child 
has learned to look up, and whose chief interests 
and studies were in the history of his country, 
easily influenced Johan Derk's life, though he 
seems to have been under his immediate care 
for a few years only. 

After 1752 the lad spent six years going 
through the Cursus of the Latin School of 
Bois-le-Duc. Not fond of Latin and Greek, 
but standing well, he next studied at Utrecht. 
In days to come he was deeply to regret the 
neglect of his opportunities here, which by 


1763 were at an end. He now found himself 
with weak health, unformed plans, and no 
home, since his father, then established as 
a country gentleman at Appeltern, strangely- 
enough kept him aloof, and he lived first with 
one, then with another, of his many relatives. 
For a young Gelderland noble who, besides 
being no great scholar, had no taste for the 
army or the court, nor could follow his bent 
for the navy, " life on an estate was in the mid- 
dle of the eighteenth century the indicated fu- 
ture, and for that was required, almost as a sine 
qua non, a wife." In 1 765 he asked his father's 
consent to his betrothal with the Fretile of 
Wittenstein, Hillegonda Anna, daughter of 
Hendrik Willem Bentinck, which after much 
ado, and with little money, was finally granted. 
The marriage took place on June 4, 1766, and 
the first years thereafter were spent chiefly at 
Wittenstein/ where he resumed his neglected 

It is said that while recognising political 
duty he showed as yet no turn for political life. 

■ Still standing in the Kamperveen. 


Yet it is recorded that he early took steps to 
enter the Ridderschap and the Upper House 
of the States of Zutphen, but, this faiHng, he 
decided to enter the Ridderschap of Overyssel, 
quahfied by his birth, and his fulfilment of all 
requirements, that of a " Knightly estate " be- 
ing met by his ownership of Bredenhorst 
(later exchanged for that of Pol), to complete 
the purchase of which he had to borrow money. 
The opposition to his claim was silenced by 
the Stadtholder's support, and two years after 
his first request, October 22, 1772, he was re- 
ceived as Regent into the Ridderschap of 
Overyssel. While up to 1 768 he had scarcely 
chosen his party, since that time he had read 
English philosophy and statecraft, Hume, 
Kames, Locke, Priestley's political writings, 
and Hutcheson's, had taken stronger hold of 
liberal principles, and had determined " to try 
to bring about an open and plain opposition, a 
necessity in every State." Thus the aston- 
ished Stadtholder found in him no partisan, 
but one who in his very presence and in his 
maiden speech opposed his Highness's policy 


of the increase of the standing army apart 
from that of the navy, and also the influence 
of the detested Duke of Brunswick-Wolfen- 

Two years later, there arose a burning 
question of foreign policy. As he had come 
to believe in the theory of the omnipotence of 
the people and the holiness of their rights, so 
" he had lost no occasion to keep pace with 
the obstinate contest of England and her 
American colonies." It now happened that 
the States of Overyssel were called upon to 
cast a decisive vote in a measure affecting 
the most important event of the eighteenth 
century, the rise of the United States. Van 
der Capellen boldly struck his first blow for 
this cause, when on the sixteenth of December, 
1775, si^ months before the Declaration of 
Independence, he delivered his famous speech 
opposing the government measure of the 

' The Duke of Brunswick- Wolfenbuttel had been the Governor of 
the Prince, and later received carte-blanche under a formal instru- 
ment, drawn up by van Bleiswyck, and signed by William, to assist 
him in military and other affairs. He left his prince-pupil only a 
shadow of power, and directed all for eighteen years in the Stadt- 
holder's name and in the English interest. See De Witt. 


" Lending of the Scotch Brigade to the King 
of E no-land for service in America, as a mark 
of friendship." 

Readers of JVaverley may remember in My 
Aiint Alargarcf s Mii-ror, the account of Cap- 
tain Falconer of the " Scotch Dutch as they 
were called," who went to the High Church in 
Rotterdam in company with " two or three 
officers of the Scotch Brigade." So too, 
Evelyn, on July i8, 1685, "went to see the 
muster of the six Scotch and Enorlish re^i- 
ments whom the Prince of Orange had lately 
sent to his Majesty out of Holland upon this 
rebellion, but which were now returning, there 
having been no occasion for their use." 

It was the same Scotch Brigade that now, 
in 1775, his Britannic Majesty again sum- 
moned from among- the foreign mercenaries 
employed in the Dutch army, as had been 
the custom since the middle of the fourteenth 
century. For a hundred years the relations 
between the United Provinces and Great Brit- 
ain had been those of master and slave,' and 

' Adams. 


it was a fierce tide which Capellen breasted 
when, in the Collegie, the old Franciscan 
cloister^ in quiet Kampen where in that year 
the States of Overyssel met, " he opposed 
with all his endeavours " this demand, set 
forth in an autograph letter from King George 
to William V,, for troops to be sent against 
the American colonies, and when he declared 
in his speech that whatever might be the ult- 
imate fate of the colonies he would always 
regard it as a glory and an honour openly to 
have protected in his public character their 
cause, which he still regarded as that of all 
the human kind. This speech caused only " a 
great sensation " yet when the Brigade was at 
last lent the King, it was upon the condition it 
should not be used " out of Europe."^ 

In the face of the Stadtholder's already 
grave displeasure, Capellen had the temerity 
to print this speech, all of which made a great 
stir. The States of Overyssel three months 
later struck it from their records. " They 

' Now torn down. A school stands in its place. 
"^ Brieven, p. 62. 

Jveryssel met, "he , 
deavours " this demand. 
in autograph letter from King George 

!j > WilJiam " troops ent against 

the American colonies, and le declared 

in his speech that what^^ the ult- 

imate fate of thf rfM-MV, . alway^^ 

re.Q2sS^ii^^^^ of Speecil against Leiidm^'^h^^Scotck 
have i>roU:r&'^f^^^^r^^^'"^^^ i7i Amerwa.- 
^nic.-. which he "till r 
man k 

^, It was uj 

od '• out of 

)f the Stadti 

to y^n Hit -. 

■, Capellen ' 

Stir. Th'. 

later struck 

' Biu 

<c(iool sta'. 



A D V I S 




a t i; R V / N DEN 


rr^'l"-. . ■. ■ :■ . Ru-^JcrJ>bnp v^K Ovrrysfil. 

Over lict \''civx)ck \m Z\nc Majesteit den Koning 
\an (t r o (vr - B r I t t a n n r e ; 

Cm c!s eer, hlyk v.t>! v>igr.dh:hii!: , cr. ^eenpMS nit boofde van fenlgf 

fi'bjiiieerefds TraUaaten of VerbindUnijjen , ivelhen daar ioe zouden 

'•''/'•'(>•'-■"» Ivl.Orfs in Jisnfi v,:,'! Hun Hoog Mogenden, 

kiend aukr d.^n tt.him c-.7« a'c? Schotjche Brigade, 

/■.• JrfKi'i^ ^eor eeu /v.,' ic' './../rv rc'gffi eii dit 

■ 'i/;iffn:,'t' < '< i ///uVi- in 

.1»n'r!tuuf}J]:L ^ .... lioo^fi- 

,.\s'^flfs dieiijl. enjehrj ie. i.jcii oveigaan. 

Co cier. ' ;', Pocc'.nber 1775. tcr Vcrgadering van Ridderschap en 

Svi-^ii ;•: 1 ;- '^TAATENVAN OvERYJsEL liitgebragt, Cn 111 de 

NvJiulcn i':cr Provincic gcVnferccrd. 

T 1.. A j\l S T E T. D A M, 
]•>' FRANS IILNDIUK DEMTER, I3oekverkopcr in dc Pylfteeg. 


first disposed of my speech," said he later, 
"they next disposed of me." But he had the 
gratification to hear from America, for Gov- 
ernor Trumbull of Connecticut, with the presi- 
dent and members of the honourable Congress, 
sent throupfh Erkelens an enclosed letter of 
thanks, " and many private citizens from all 
parts of the country ask me to send you their 
hearty thanks also." ^ 

Capellen replied to Trumbull as follows : 

Quant k votre obligeante lettre, que Mon- 
sieur Erkelens me dit m'etre envoiee aussi k la 
requisition du President et des Membres de I'honor- 
able Congress — soyez persuade, Monsieur, que de- 
posee parmi mes chartres, elle me sera a jamais plus 
precieuse que I'ordre de la chevalerie la plus brillante 
dont quelque Monarque que ce soit, auroit pu me 
decorer. Mes Ancetres ont de tems immemorial 
figure dans nombre de Corps et Chapitres nobles. 
Ma Maison a donn6 de Chevaliers k Malthe et k 
rOrdre Teutonique ; mais ce temoignage de I'appro- 
bation dont il plait au Peuple Americain d'honorer 
mes efforts, bien intentionnes, mais foibles en effet 
pour lui ^tre utile, me vaut plus que tout cela. Ma 
posterity, si Dieu m'en donne, ne manquera pas de 
s'en glorifier. C'est mon cceur qui parle. II se sent 

' Brievcn, p. 6, July 22, 1777- 


touche. Ayez la bonte de faire parvenir son lan- 
guage a la connoissance de ceux au nom des quels 
vous m'avez fait I'honneur de m'ecrire.' 

But the formal thanks of Congress he seems 
never to have received, much to Trumbull's 
regret, who could only write : 

" We had nothing to offer you but our 
thanks and to withhold the most honourable 
public testimony of these did appear to me 
very unjustifiable as well as highly impolitic, 
silence I did conceive merited the 
name of ingratitude." '^ 

' Brieven, p. 85, December 7, 1778. 

'^ Brieven, p. 669, October i, 1783. 

The difficulties of their correspondence were not small. When 
Governor Trumbull had the " honour and pleasure to acknowledge," 
August 31, 1779, in a letter to Baron van der Capellen, the latter's 
first and triplicate letter of December 7, 1778, he says that " the for- 
mer came the i8th. instant, the latter about three weeks ago by Cap- 
tain Niles from France. . . . The duplicate came to Philadelphia, 
the first that arrived." — (See Collections of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. First series, vol. vi. Boston, 1798.) This letter was 
entrusted to Mr. Gosuinus Erkelens, who intended to have delivered 
it to the Governor on the 2nd of June, 1779. " But," wrote Mr. 
Erkelens, " a most unlucky affair will prae vent me that great satis- 
faction ; to my greatest sorrow I left my sulky with all my bagage 
in Middletown ; my horse being worried out ; I would send for the 
same by water, which I did, and the man which I send instead fol- 
lowing my orders to have the Carriage floated behind the boat ; had 
the imprudency to take it in the boat : which has made the same 
oversett : and all my things sinkt into the River : I could find no 


All the time [van der Kemp continues], which I 
now could spare, I devoted to becoming thoroughly 
acquainted not only with the history and antiquities, 
but principally with the laws and constitution of my 
country. My bosom glowed with the sacred fire of 
patriotism, and it seemed to me the period was fast 
approaching, if not already there, in which these 
sacred rights — long lost or neglected or made doubt- 
ful—for which the blood of our ancestors had been 
shed with such a profusion, might be recovered. 

We enjoyed peace, had many enlightened Patriots 
at the helm, many who had known and were initiated 
by Wieling, Noodt, Barbeyrac, Bynkershoek, Voorda, 
van der Marck and van der Keessel ' ; and it seemed 
to me that the interests of the House of Orange, if 
well understood, might effect a co-operation from 
that side. No doubt there were many virtuous and 
enlightened men amongst its warmest partisans. 
No constitutional barrier existed, encroachments had 
been made, it is true, but often without intention to 
enslave the country. The danger became evident 
of undefined power entrusted to individuals. The 
Union of Utrecht was in many respects imperfect, 
and had never been intended for a constitution. 
There had been a continued struggle between the 

words to express my sorrow for this : in principall for that Letter. 
If I work a Whole Week shall not give out to look for it and am in 
hopes to find them." — MS. letter dated " Chatham near Middletown 
Conn., 3 June, 1779." In Trumbull papers, Connecticut Historical 
Society, Hartford. Unsigned, but undoubtedly written by Erkelens, 
a Dutch merchant established for some time in America. 
' Jurists. 


one, the few, and the many. The nation at large 
was at length excluded from any interference in 
public affairs except in Friesland, and nominally, in 
the cities of Guelderland. When no Stadtholder 
was at the head of the government, then a staunch 
aristocracy ruled, and curbed every symptom of 
innovation ; this was particularly the case after the 
death of William III. in the beginning of the eight- 
eenth century, when a few noblemen in Guelderland 
and Utrecht exerted themselves in vain to restore 
their fellow citizens to their ancient privileges, which 
had been first trodden under foot by the House of 
Austria. When in 1747- 1748 the Stadtholderate 
was restored, the balance struck once more to that 
side. The nation was in the meantime happy, and 
called herself free, because the people were not 
vexed, because their property was held sacred, their 
personal safety unmolested, and justice impartially 

To ensure the happiness of this country, and place 
liberty on a less precarious, more solid basis, a re- 
generation was desirable, was unavoidable. The 
House of Orange might remain a blessing as the 
Executive ; the nobles and patricians ought to con- 
tinue to possess a legal counterpoise in their State 
Assemblies ; but the nation at large ought to recover 
a real influence in the choice of their representatives. 
To resist encroachments, to reform abuses, to apply 
constitutional remedies, and to establish a regular 
reform was desired by many, was deemed desirable 
by many even of the Orange party, who only were 


withholden by fear from the usual dangers of innov- 
ations. My friend Paulus had published his Essay 
on the Usefulness of the Stadtholderate, as it Ought to 
Have BeeJi. He showed his extended views in his 
commentary on the Union of Utrecht. Van der 
Capellen the Lord of Pol raised his voice to break 
the galling chains of the yeomanry of Overyssel, in 
proposing the abolishing of the corvees^ exacted 
often with rigour by the High Dignitaries. Both 
urged me to step forward, and to be sure, I did not 
want the spur. I communicated my ideas to my 
friends, and encouraged by both, I published my 
Observations on the Union of Utrecht " in five letters 
to my friend P. Paulus, first without, but afterwards 
reprinted with my name. In these I discussed sev- 
eral of the most important points of the Union, as 
the military jurisdiction, the quotas of the different 
States, the right of arbitrage, &c., &c. Now the ice 
was broken, and I was encouraged on every side to 

It was about this time that I aimed to accomplish 
a nearly Herculean task in my actual situation. I 
intended to collect all which was valuable among 
the archives of my country, as well as in the libraries 
of individuals. I perceived the forged chains which 
were to be riveted on the necks of my countrymen, 

' Drosiendienst. Legally abolished in 1631, compensated by 
money to the sheriffs, this still exacted from the peasants the services 
of two days' labour in the year, which were similar to the French 
corvefes, though less severe, 

''' This work brought him the odium of the Stadtholder's party. 


and deemed it a feasible thing to break these. I 
perceived their insensiblHty and indolence, and 
would rouse them to vigorous unrelenting action ; I 
glowed with indignation when I became convinced 
that in the fetters prepared for the Americans, the 
slavery of my own country was a chief ingredient. 
I would enlighten my parishioners by the pure 
knowledge of genuine Gospel-truth, and annihilate 
the hierarchical power in the Church of Christ. 

Neither the difficulties I had to struggle with, 
nor the obstacles I had to encounter, nor the threat- 
ening aspect of futurity could discourage me or 
slacken my endeavours. Here were the Barons 
Capellen van der Pol and der Marsch, there van 
Berckel, de Gyzelaer, Paulus, Luzac, emboldening 
me to proceed ; while a du Pui,' a van der Marck,' 
a Vreede, a van Schelle,' made a proffer of their 
aid, and numbers of the worthiest of the Stadthold- 
er's friends procured me weapons of hardened steel 
to combat the monstrous hydra. 

I published now with short intervals my Letters on 
the Corvces in Overyssel, a Collection of Authentic 
Doctiments, called Jr. JoJian Derk van der Capellen^ 
Lord of the Pol, Member of the Equestrian Order 
in Overyssel, Regent, a Collection of Tracts Relative 
to the United States of North America [chiefly letters 
of Governors Trumbull and Livingston], with a 

' Probably the Walloon preacher Isaac du Puy, friend of van der 

' " My beloved and meritorious master." — V. d. K. 

' Pieter, 1 749-1 792. Left Holland in 1787, one of the Patriots. 


preface on this new commonwealth, including a 
comparison between this and that of the United 
Provances, under the signature of "Junius Brutus," 
dedicated to the United States, and a Collection of 
State Papers relating to the debated question of 
illimited convoys,' with a preface by " Junius Brutus 
Secundus Friso." ' 

The Letters on the Corvc'es were successful above 
my most sanguine expectations. The first inflamed 
those in power; the reward of two hundred dollars 
was offered by placard to discover the author or 
printer. The second, by which the first appeared 
flaccid, roused the inhabitants of Overyssel, who 
poured in their petitions from every side to request 
the States for the abolition of this ignominious 
slavery. The three capital cities — Kampen, De- 
venter, and ZwoUe — with the Noble Drost Pallandt 
van Zuithem,^ stood forward in their defence. The 

' Unlimited Convoy. The protection by the navy of merchant- 
men without regard to difference of lading. See Sillem. 

" Van der Kemp is as magnanimous as capricious, his courage and 
Calmness merit admiration and his patriotism also respect. I have 
most seriously asked of van Berckel protection for him. The unlim- 
ited convoy and the whole Patriot party owe more than is known to 
this clergyman, and so have I written van Berckel." (J. D. van der 
Capellen to R. J. van der Capellen, May 12, 1780. Britven, p. 177.) 
And later he asked his kinsman Hooft for some position for van der 
Kemp "which is difficult to obtain because he has left our public 

' "I have also translated into Dutch a sermon by a friend in 
England, The American War Lamented. Perhaps this renders my 
enemies an occasion to persecute me anew." — MS. letter to Adams. 
Leyden, November 26, 1781. 

^ Adolph Werner van Pallandt, 1727-1803. 


third and last Letter broke and humbled the spirit 
of the high-minded Lords, so that I openly and 
fearlessly stept forward, and did see these shackles 
removed by a solemn statute. 

This victory increased my vigorous exertions. I 
then prepared the history of Capellen's admission 
into the Equestrian Order in Overyssel, and brought 
in order my great Magazine, to attack and destroy 
that hideous monster of military jurisdiction. But 
these so many complicated engagements nearly 
overpowered me ; they brought me to the brink of 
the grave ; yet I emerged. 

One Friday evening when returning from my 
literary club earlier than usual, a violent headache 
compelling me to retreat, I went to bed, passed a 
restless night, awoke with increased pain, which 
compelled me to go again to bed in the afternoon, 
giving orders to my servant to awake me at three 
in the morning, as my sermon was yet unfinished. 
I executed my task above my expectation, preached 
with an increasing headache from instant to instant, 
laid down as soon as I reached home, and was on 
Monday morning so much exhausted that writing 
three lines to my friend P. Vreede, they were illegi- 
ble. My strength gradually diminished and I was 
reduced that day to a state of stupid lethargy ; all 
my faculties were benumbed ; pain had left me ; 
time seemed not to exist. My physician was per- 
plexed, and apprehensive that the vital powers were 
so far absorbed that I must ere long sink under it. 
What was remarkable, the moment I shut my eyes I 


had a MS. leaf, then on the press, in my hand, read 
it till I arrived at an erasure, and then I awoke ; 
this sensation continued a fortnight. My physician 
had ordered me the use of Peruvian bark, and recom- 
mended the country air. I was carried to the sea- 
coast, and received at my former residence with 
kindness, mingled with deep distress at my situation. 
Not one but despaired of my recovery. I took every 
hour a teaspoonful of bark in powder, made to a 
palatable conserve by syrup of roses. Within a 
fortnight after my arrival I began to revive, and 
moved through the room ; my appetite returned ; 
with this I joined sea bathing, increased my bod- 
ily exercise with my renewed devouring appetite, 
lessened gradually the use of the bark, and con- 
tinued my exercises, amusing myself in the society of 
my surrounding friends, without so much as looking 
at a book, and within six weeks I returned in the full 
bloom of youth and muscular strength to Leyden, 
so that everyone was astonished in witnessing this sur- 
prising recovery. Thus was my usefulness restored. 
With renewed alacrity I doubled my former ex- 
ertions, and devoted myself once more to accom- 
plish that arduous and complicated task, of which I 
had chalked only the rough outlines. Voluntarily I 
took it on my shoulders, and was so generally suc- 
cessful that I had no reason to complain. One 
single production, a cutting philippic, entitled A 
Laurel Wreath for a Fezv Nobles — such a one as I 
here entwined round the head of Canaan's priest ' — 

' A Wreath for the Rev. Dow. 


I since regretted, as it could not effect any good 
purpose, but irritated and widened the breach. In 
the latter case it was the infliction of a well-deserved 

I had published an ode' in 1780 in praise of the 
opposition in Friesland. It was not mine ; it was 
the work of the friend of my bosom [Peter Vreede],* 
who had then fled his country. A criminal prosecu- 
tion was instituted against the printer ; and the 
weakness of the man, who had undertaken the pub- 
lication by his unlimited confidence in me, persuaded 
me to extricate him and charge myself with its 
responsibility. Could I have done else? Could I 
betray a friend whose happiness was in my power? 
No ! You would have blushed at such a father. 
He was married, and had already two children, and 
an amiable and accomplished wife ; I was alone and 
could weather the storm. A criminal prosecution 
was then instituted against me by the Promoter 
[Public Prosecutor] of the University, as one of its 
members, for the publication of an Ode, by which 
the government, principally that of Friesland, was 

^ Lyric Poem, dedicated to Messrs. Eysinga, Buma, and other 
members of the Council of Friesland. By E. H. J. Leyden, 1780. 
8vo. "Van der Kemp published this through Herdingh, who was 
fined. Hereupon he made himself known as author, and won a 
remarkable lawsuit." See Sillem. 

' The secret of the authorship is disclosed by van der Kemp in 
a note to his MS., Memoirs oti Copper, as follows; "An ode was 
published January i, 1780, — in praise of a few noblemen who voted 
for illimited convoys. Its author, P. Vreede, my dearest friend, was 
by his peculiar situation prevented from owning it. To cover him 
and save the editor [printer], I charged me with its responsibility." 



as the infliction of a 

lied an ode' in 1780 in praise o 
in Friesland. It was not mine ; it was 
■ '\ ^ " ' of my bosom [Peter Vreede],' 
country. A criminal prosecu- 
tion was instituted against the printer; and the 
weakness of the man, who ' ' 'ertaken the pub- 
lication by his unHmited cc e in me, persuaded 
me to extricate him and charge myself with its 
responsibility. Could I have done else? Could I 
betray a friend whe^^S'ppm^^^^vas in my power? 
No ! You would have blushed at such a fatheE. 
He was married, and had already two children, and 
an amiable and accomplished wife; I v""^ nl,,ne and 
could weather the storm. A crimin. ition 



the government, 

' Lyric Poem, dedicated to M . 
members of the Council of Frie?' 
8vo. ' "emp pub':: 

fined. he made 

remark " See Siiiem. 

'The - .- the axulior.^hiv' 

a note to his MS., M 
published January i, i/ij. — 
for illimited convoys. Its ai. 
by his peculiar sit.; 
and save the edito: 

of its 

an der Kemp in 

s: " An ode was 

., ..oblemen who voted 

my dearest friend, was 

■ung it. To cover him 

th its responsibility." 

a%aa3HaHm Q(a-umTira;i!rT!! MMiiliMimy ni}tiJmJltn!UtM!l';ti^ 


accused and traduced, and on the loth of April, 
1780, I was summoned to appear before the Rector 
and Judges composing the High Academic Tribunal. 

This was the second law-case of that nature during 
the existence of the Republic : the first was that of 
Mr. Adrian van der Mieden, one of the Judges of 
the Supreme Court. 

It was evident, and even whispered pretty loudly, 
that the Ode was the pretext, and that the other 
publications, principally the Collection of State Papers 
by Junius Brutiis, were the real object. All my 
friends — even the firmest — were alarmed : with one 
voice they urged me to leave the country. An asy- 
lum was offered me in Brussels ; the protection of 
the French Cabinet was engaged in my behalf; even 
the undaunted van der Capellen, Lord of Pol, urged 
my departure, and entreated me to listen to the 
advice of disinterested friends. I would be a use- 
less victim ; the Ode, however well written, was not 
worth this sacrifice. Not one of the Patriotic law- 
yers dared to step forward in my defence, except my 
friend John Luzac. He advised me, if I had con- 
fidence enough in myself, to brave the criminal pro- 
cedures, only awful in appearance to the guilty, to 
the weak and pusillanimous. If I trusted in my- 
self, he would say, stand unmovable ; weather the 
threatening storm, and you will dispel it. Another 
lawyer of the first eminence, and a declared partisan 
of the House of Orange, de Beveren van Zelder, 
engaged voluntarily to assist him : with such aid 
and a good cause what had I to fear? I bade 


farewell to an amiable friend, Miss E, Goverts, who 
started that day for Hamburg, took with her a part- 
ing dish of chocolate, and went about twelve to the 
City Hall, where the court was assembled. The 
street was literally crowded, but all made place when 
I appeared with my counsellors : we were admitted 
into an adjoining room. 

The criminal procedures at that time in Holland 
were more imposing than here : the Judges in pontif- 
icalibus, the counsel removed, the doors shut, and 
the prisoner left to his own ingenuity or innocence. 

It was the first of May, about one, when I was 
warned by the beadle to appear before the august 
tribunal, consisting of eleven members besides their 
Secretary, viz. : the Rector Magnificus, four Profess- 
ors, four Burgomasters, and two Echevins, and was 
examined, stantepede, from one to ten o'clock at night 
upon ninety-four interrogatories, some very intricate 
and ambiguously expressed. 

I had made a favourable impression on the major- 
ity of the Judges; many exerting themselves, as I 
was afterwards informed by my friends, at every 
opposition I made against any inquisitorial proceed- 
ing which I deemed unlawful, with warmth in my 
favour, while I was absent ; so that I could not be 
intimidated by the threats of the Promoter, and I 
boldly declined to answer at all as often as I was 
entitled by law to claim this privilege. I was finally 
dismissed under the solemn promise of re-appearance, 
Siib pcena confessi et convicti. 

I recollected sixty-seven of the principal interrogat- 


ories and answers, which I gave to my friend Luzac, 
and then, though late at night, sat down at an excel- 
lent supper of codfish on which we had intended to 

The 22nd of May was the day appointed for the 
continuation of the procedures, but the Promoter 
was not ready. A manly petition was presented by 
my counsellors, upon which the High Tribunal com- 
manded the Promoter to prosecute, if he had any 
just cause, within a fortnight, and conclude the 
process within four weeks ; or " that they in default 
of it, should declare it concluded, leaving iii this case 
to me all the further means to which I, by law and 
practice, was entitled."' 

The second examination was the 2nd of June, 
1780, on forty-six articles; the third on the 12th of 
June on thirty-five articles. Then my counsel re- 
quested the conclusion, but another term of pro- 
longation of four weeks was granted to the Promoter, 
who then applied to the Committee of State (Ge- 
committeerde Raeden), which transacts business 
during the adjournment of the States Assembly, to 
have his powers enlarged, so that he might continue 
his prosecution against me, as the presumed Junius 
Brutus ; which address was sent by the Committee 
of State to the Academic Tribunal for their consid- 
eration and advice. Then the Promoter addressed 
himself by a new petition to the States of Holland, 
requesting more time to institute his prosecution, 
which was again sent to the Rector and Judges ; 
when a masterly remonstrance, which was the 


combined work of both Professors-at-Lavv Voorda and 
van del" Keessel, was presented in my defence to the 
States of Holland by the Academic Tribunal. My 
counsel urged on the 25th of January, 1781, the ter- 
mination of this vexatious procedure. This noble 
Tribunal addressed the Assembly of States once 
more in energetic language, expostulating with firm- 
ness that justice loudly claimed the termination of 
this process on the 9th of July, 1781, as the Pro- 
moter had obtained an unlimited stircheance. The 
secret plan was to leave me sub reatu. My counsel 
urged the injustice of a longer delay, in a petition 
the 15th of October, 1781 ; and then, as advised by 
the Academic Tribunal, I applied directly to the 
States in November, 1781 ; went in person to the 
Hague ; appealed to the Great Pensionary and all 
the Delegates of the eighteen cities, claiming loudly 
for justice, either by absolution or condemnation. 

Upon advice of the Secretary of the Senate, I 
appeared the 14th of January, 1782, before the 
High Tribunal, and urged my claims to a final issue ; 
when that illustrious body addressed itself once 
more in my behalf on the 21st of January to the 
Legislature of the State, with that success that the 
States of Holland declared the siircheance removed 
and the process terminated, leaving to the Rector 
and Judges the lawful conclusion in open letters of 
the 25th of January. The Academic Senate sum- 
moned the Promoter to appear before it. He de- 
clared (Mr. van der Marck being the successor in 
office to Mr. P. Marcus) that he had no ground to 


proceed, and so I was finally and solemnly acquitted 
on the 28th of January, 1782. 

This vexatious procedure was, notwithstanding 
the obtained triumph, highly expensive ; but here 
too gratitude requires the acknowledgment that it 
was reimbursed by my friend to a farthing, as soon 
as I informed him of the amount. It cost me be- 
sides, unavoidably, some unpleasant moments, but 
it could not damp my spirits. I lashed abuse of 
power, wherever I met with it, without mercy, even 
when threatened with incarceration. The week- 
minded stood aloof ; many feared to accost me in 
public, but I gained more and more the favourable 
regards of the first men in the State, and obtained 
unequivocal proofs of approbation from zealous and 
honest men in the Orange party. They knew I was 
no tool ; they knew my patriotism was pure, disin- 
terested. Some of my parishioners meanwhile, and 
not the least valuable part, regretted that I em- 
barked so deep in that political gulf. 

I had published the whole legal process till its 
conclusion, with a preface and the Ode, to prove its 
innocence; and published now in 1782, to gratify 
my congregation, a volume of sermons, chiefly on 
the relative duties, which I dedicated to my late 
parishioners in Huyzen ; then a sermon — A Delinea- 
tio7i of the Conduct of Israel and Rehoboani, as a mir- 
ror for the Prince and the Nation — i Kings xii., 3, 
20,' which being three times delivered, and twice 

' De Gyzelaer is said to have come from Dort to hear his friend 
preach this famous sermon. 



printed, caused a great sensation, the more so as at 
the same time my noble friend had written a manly 
appeal To the People of Netherlands while I visited 
him at his country seat, and entrusted me with its 
publication and distribution. Seldom had use been 
made of bolder language; the alleged facts were 
stubborn, and truth appeared in all its awful solemn- 
ity. Its effect resembled an electric shock. It 
was literally spread through the principal cities as 
well as the country, and this in one single night ; and 
although I had employed several individuals, and 
twenty-five hundred dollars was offered for the dis- 
covery, not one person betrayed his trust. 

The history of this famous pamphlet, a mas- 
terpiece of its kind, is set forth by the Rev. A. 
Loosjes of Amsterdam in two pamphlets, giv- 
ing minutely the course of his five years' invest- 
igation to other students of the subject. 

No less than fifteen forms are known under 
which it has been printed, it has been several 
times translated, and many times transcribed. 
An anonymous note on the MS. copy in the 
Paris National Library states that " Professor 
Valckenaer said that Mr. Capellen de Pol 
made this work and that it was printed at 
Lingen, where Mr. van der Marck, then Pro- 


fessor in that city, had presided over its pub- 
Hcation." The pamphlet itself tells us that 
van der Marck was called to Lingen after his 
dismissal from Groningen at the instance of 
the Stadtholder, for alleged heterodoxy, but 
really for his liberal principles, though he was 
friendly to the House of Orange. 

Mr. Loosjes's theory, that it was written by 
van der Capellen of Pol, he regards as finally 
proved by this statement of van der Kemp.^ 

The anonymous author of this famous 
pamphlet, who so solemnly addresses his " Fel- 
low Countrymen, . . . as in the presence 
of the All-Seeing God," traces the history of 
the Netherlands from the dawn of Batavian 
free government to his own day, clown through 
the long years of continued encroachment 
upon the people's rights by even the best 
rulers, and ends in a bitter arraignment of 
William V. The final appeal To the People of 
the Netherlands is not only "to act before all 
be lost, to challenge the supine conduct of the 

' Copied and sent him by the editor in 1890. See A. Loosjes, 
Nog een en ander, etc., p. 14, Amsterdam 1891. 


war with England, to protect the liberty of the 
press, the only prop of our freedom," but even 
dares a more threatening key. " Let all be 
ready, every man with his musket, bayonet and 
side arms, let them follow the example of the 
people of America where not a drop of blood 
was shed till the English struck the first 
blow, and Jehovah will support our righteous 

Hotheaded as this may seem, the bold writer 
had carefully weighed every word as he sat in 
his old house at Appeltern with van der Kemp, 
nor failed to count the cost. " This letter will 
be proclaimed seditious and slanderous, re- 
wards promised for information of writer or 
printer," and so it came to pass. 

Adams wrote from Amsterdam, October 25, 
1781 : 

I see in the London Courant, which arrived to- 
day, an advertisement of a translation into English 
of the address to the people of Netherlands ; so that 
this work is likely to be translated into all languages, 
and read by all the world, notwithstanding the pla- 
cards against it. I have before sent that of Utrecht.' 

^ Dip. Corres. Am. Rev., vol. iii., p. 492. 


The States of Holland and West Friesland 
offered for discovery of author, writer, or 
printer one thousand gold ryders and promised 
protection, secrecy, pardon, and reward to any 
person turning state's evidence. 

Any one printing, publishing, or circulating the 
same shall be under pain of perpetual banishment, 
and forfeit six thousand gulden, one third to go to 
the ofificer who makes the seizure, one third to the 
informer, and one third to the poor. . . . All print- 
ers, booksellers, and all to whom the pampJilct may 
be sent for sale, gift, distribution, lending, or read- 
ing are ordered to bring the same to the Magistrate, 
under pain of punishment.' 

But " not one person betrayed his trust," 
and van der Kemp was free to continue his 
work, as is shown by the following letter to 
Mr. Adams : 

Nymegen, Ce 5 juin 1781 
La lettre de Gouverneur Trumbull est sous la 
presse. J'ai fini la traduction des articles de la con- 

^ N. Nederl. Jaarb., Oct., 1781. 

"Such are the severe measures which this Government think 
themselves bound to take to suppress this libel. They will have, 
however, a contrary effect, and will make a pamphlet which other- 
wise perhaps would have been known in a small circle, familiar to all 
Europe. The press cannot be restrained; all attempts of that kind 
in France and Holland are every day found to be ineffectual." — 
Adams, Dip. Carres. Am. Rev., vol. iii., p. 493. 


foederation des Etats Unis en 1778, comme aussi du 
sermon de Dr. Cooper et des heads of enquiry with 
the answer to it, printed at Boston, comme une piece 
relatif au lettre du Gouverneur. Un de mes amis 
traduit les autres pieces et harangues relatifs a la 
constitution de Massachusetts Bay, et apres mon re- 
tour a Leyde je donnerai toutes ces papiers au Pub- 
lic avec un preface, que j'ecrirai dans I'air libre 

P. S. ce midi je pars a Appeltern chez le Baron 
van der Capellen, si votre excellence me fait I'hon- 
neur de faire reponse k cet lettre oserois-je demander 
de I'addresser a M. van der Capellen, Le Baron 
van der Capellen de Marsch a fait un male har- 
angue, peut etre j'aurai I'occasion d'en donner un 
detail plus ample. 

By November 26th he congratulates Adams 
on Yorktown, but fears that both the Barons 
van der Capellen will suffer for their glorious 
opposition to the Court measures.^ 

The autobiography continues : 

This and several other publications kept my mo- 
ments of leisure employed ; I had constantly two, 
sometimes three presses at my disposal. 

Before the end of this year four large volumes in 8vo 
of my Magazine of Authentic Documents on the Mili- 

' MS. letters. 


tary Jtirisdiction^ collected from the State Records in 
all the Provinces were completed. This momentous 
and interesting question had at length become an 
object of deliberation in the Legislative Assemblies 
of the States. The Court party seemed resolved 
not to obstruct the proceedings, with a view to gain 
popularity by this condescension. I sent the work 
as soon as it was printed, to the States of the differ- 
ent Provinces, humbly requesting their acceptance 
of documents of the highest importance in their 
present deliberations, and of which, as I informed 
the Grand Pensionary van Bleiswyck in a private 
audience, " many they did not possess, and could 
not procure ; while several had been destroyed in 
the archives and restored by me to existence, to 
prevent hesitation in the decision of this great 
national question." 

I was ere long informed by my particular friends 
in the States of Holland, that the Great Pensionary' 

' There were in all eleven volumes. 

This work, like others from his pen, is still of value. It established 
the contention of Capellen and the Democrats that military men 
should in both criminal and civil matters be judged by the ordinary 
tribunals save where the States General had indicated a military judge. 
— See Hartog, Uit de Dagen, p. 78. 

* " M. van Bleiswick [Grand Pensionary of Holland] is a great 
scholar, linguist, natural philosopher, mathematician, and even phy- 
sician ; has great experience in public affairs, and is able and adroit 
enough in the conduct of them ! but not having a temper bold and 
firm enough, or perhaps loving his ease too much, or not having am- 
bition, or patriotism, or zeal, or health enough to assume a great and 
decided conduct, he is fallen in his reputation. They suspected him 
of duplicity, and in short, measures are prepared and brought into 


declined to present these volumes in my name. 
I directly went to him and inquired how he justified 
his conduct. His pretexts were frivolous, and his last 
refuge that he did not deem it proper to present 
these books to the State in my name. I left him 
and waited a few weeks that he might deliberate, 
and then insisted peremptorily on his returning 
them ; when I sent these to the city of Leyden, im- 
ploring their patriotic patronage in this momentous 
cause. I received the solemn thanks of the city by 
their Pensionary van Stavoren, with a present in 
books sumptuously bound, viz. Fr. van Mieris's Char- 
ter Book, and the Description of Leyden by Mieris 
and D. van Alphen ; and ere long, yet more gratify- 
ing, from the States of Groningen and Friesland, by 
their Secretary of State ; while the States in Utrecht 
contented themselves to make a present in money 
to the printer's servants. In Guelderland the Burg- 
graef van Lynden ' prevented its becoming an 
object of the State deliberations. " No individual 
was entitled to such a distinguished privilege." He 
bereft me indeed of a high gratification, but it was 
not in his power to stop the proceedings. Not one 
dared to step forward as the advocate for this arbi- 
trary tribunal. Before the end of the year four 
other volumes were completed, and these crowned 
by the success, that the High Tribunal of Military 

the States of Holland without his consent or previous knowledge, and 
there carried ; a thing unknown until these days." — Adams, Sept. 4, 
1782, Dip. Corres. Am. Rev., vol. iii., p. 636. 

' Probably William, who was in great favour at Court, governor of 
the prince's sons, and made Burggraef of Nymegen. 


Jurisdiction was solemnly annulled throughout all 
the Provinces, and sanctioned by the States General, 
and his Highness the Prince Stadtholder. I then 
gave a Supplement of three volumes as lasting 
monuments and warnings to posterity, how usurp- 
ation, slowly creeping forward, at length takes hold 
with a thousand roots, not to be eradicated without 
a great struggle. 

I now seriously contemplated to form a more last- 
ing connection in life, and succeeded in obtaining 
the heart and hand of your dear mother, 20th of 
May, 1 782. She was the daughter of the Honourable 
Jacob Vos, Burgomaster of the city of Nymegen, 
and Lady Cuneira Beekman, the last sprig of that 
noble lineage, of whose ancestors William Beekman 
— her grandfather's brother — emigrated to New Am- 
sterdam in 1646, where he soon was appointed Gov- 
ernor on the South River. Her mother reluctantly 
consented. I was already too well known. She 
more favourably inclined with her son, then Burgo- 
master at Nymegen, to the Stadtholder's cause, her 
husband having stood as the Prince's godfather in 
the name of the States of Guelderland. But I car- 
ried the prize notwithstanding, Jiaiit a la main, and 
conquered ere long the good-will of all. 

When I returned to .Leyden I published i^?V^ vS^r- 
mons 071 Solemn Days during the last war with Eng- 
land, exerting about that period every nerve to 
organize a solid system of reforming the remaining 
abuses, and restore the ancient privileges which our 
forefathers had enjoyed even under Charles V. 


In 1783, three days after your birth, I received a 
solemn invitation to a splendid dinner from the 
mercantile interest at Amsterdam, to celebrate the 
American Independence, the abolished Corv^es in 
Overyssel, and the re-establishment of Baron van der 
Capellen of Pol in the Equestrian Order (readmitted 
to the Council Hall of Overyssel Nov. i, 1782) and 
of Fr. van Berckel, as Pensionary of that city. 

This was a magnificent banquet at the New 
Doelen, in the Garnalen Market at Amster- 
dam. A gold medal bearing the emblems of 
their freedom was given by the grateful farmers 
to the Baron, and each of the guests received 
one in silver from the same die. 

Though till van der Kemp's last days 
Capellen's name was ever on his lips, in his 
memoirs he now mentions it almost for the 
last time, and the story of his later life may 
best be told here. 

Baron van der Capellen is said by a 
Hollander of our own time to have been 
personally attractive and sympathetic, a man 
of dignity and presence, whose face was full 
of candour and honesty, — " a Democrat who 
sought to keep clean hands " — " too much of an 


aristocrat to be a demagogue " — and without 
ambitions for himself. 

While in the opinion of his contemporaries 
no correct likeness was known of him, there 
remain numbers of engraved portraits, such as 
the one brought to America by van der Kemp. 
Many of them are adorned by such emblems as 
a broken yoke, a parted chain, which denote 
his success in freeing the Overyssel farmers 
of the last burden of feudal rule, the Corv^es 
or Drostendienst. Its abrogation was first de- 
manded by him in a speech in April, 1778, 
which has its chief interest for us as giving his 
doctrine of human rights. This, taken with 
his support of the American cause three years 
before, now brought about his " unjust expul- 
sion from his seat in the States of Overyssel 
the following October. 

My first entrance into public life — he wrote to his 
American correspondents — exacted utter renuncia- 
tion of wealth. This I had decided I could do with- 
out. A few years of retirement in the country, 
joined to a little philosophy, had weaned me from 
the love of dignities and the favour of the great. A 
rigid economy, a very simple way of living, no stables, 


no kennels, few servants, assured my independence. 
Having partly foreseen the trials inevitable from such 
an enterprise I bore them in patience, always hoping 
that in the end I might be useful to my country. — 
Formerly I had the happiness to lead a quiet, 
obscure and private life, but for the last six years 
I have experienced all the bitterness of public con- 
tests — an unexampled opposition without the least 
help of a living soul. — I am now excluded from all 
share in the government ; the efforts which I am 
still making to be restored to it arise only from a 
sense of duty. — Longing to retire, being now nearly 
forty, old beyond my years, from ill-health, applica- 
tion to business, and trouble, . . . the only wish 
I form is to do this in happy America. — But this an 
aged father, a wife, and the education of an only 
child forbid. 

" All the details concerning my expulsion 
have been collected," he continued, " under the 
title of Capellen Regent by an unknown friend." 
This friend was soon to be recognised as van 
der Kemp, one of the few who agreed with 
him that it was now or never with the friends 
of freedom in the Netherlands. 

Capellen had published in 1777 a Dutch 
translation of Dr. Price's Observations on Civil 
ajid Religious Liberty and the Justice of the 


War with America, with a preface of his own, 
which is regarded as his poHtical creed. 

The battle was now joined, and there were 
few men even in the province of Holland who 
dared so openly as he to lead the opposition 
against what he believed the Stadtholder's un- 
due power, and in favour of the American 
cause. His doctrines gained ground, he be- 
came well and widely known, and more and 
more in the many pamphlets of the time was 
he made the model of a patriot. Perhaps in 
deference to his sucrcrestion in a letter to 
Governor Livingston of New Jersey,^ that the 
United States should send as soon as possible 
a suitable representative to Holland, Adams 
arrived in Amsterdam in August, 1780, enter- 
ing the country, he said, "a forlorn pilgrim 
without a letter of introduction to anybody." 
On September 19th he received his provisional 
commission to negotiate a loan and at once set 
about discharging this duty.'~ 

' Brievcn, p. 115. 

° Mr. Adams arrived in Paris on February 9th, 17S0. — "There 
seeming no prospect that Great Britain would soon be inclined to 
peace," for the negotiation of which he had been sent out as pleni- 


Capellen had little money to invest ; he had 
sacrificed the brilliant opportunity for making 
a fortune offered by his relations with the 
Court in order to preserve his independence 
of its favours. But he wrote on the i6th of 
October to ask the terms of the loan, to offer 
his services in his little sphere, and to recom- 
mend " mon intime van der Kemp, a man of 
learning, integrity and courage." 

potentiary, and "having no special reasons for remaining at the 
French Court, he made a tour to Holland in the beginning of August, 
leaving his secretary, Mr. Dana, at Paris. 

" Meantime Congress had assigned him another duty. Mr. Henry 
Laurens had been appointed, as early as November, 1779, to negoti- 
ate a loan of ten millions abroad, but having been prevented by vari- 
ous causes from departing on this service. Congress, on the 20th of 
June following, authorized Mr. Adams to engage in the undertaking, 
and prosecute it till Mr. Laurens, or some other person in his stead, 
should arrive in Europe. This commission reached Paris four weeks 
after he had left that city, and Mr. Dana proceeded with it to Hol- 
land. Efforts were immediately made to procure a loan in that 
country, which were for a long time ineffectual, but which at last 
succeeded." — Dip. Corres. Am. Rev., vol. ii., p. 535. 

"Till this moment you were unacquainted that I was compelled 
to revere the man [John Adams] before I was honoured with the Am- 
bassador's personal acquaintance. Van der Capellen of Pol, my con- 
fidential friend, inspired me with an irresistible desire to see and 
know that man on whom he bestowed with profusion his enthusiastic 
encomiums. Do you remember a dinner at John de Neufville's, and 
a warm altercation between you and that nobleman, and its noble 
issue ? . . . It secured you the affectionate esteem of that worthy 
man, and contributed to crown your arduous negotiations in the most 
difficult and delicate period with a successful . . . for America 

'.w»ViV ,mi"ivf'\ 


r . ' ,.,...,., .o invest 

:t opportunity fo 
his relatio! 
to preserve his independence 
. favours. But he wrote on the i6th of 
ber to ask the terms of the loan, to offer 
/.LIS services in his little sphere, and to recom- 
mend " mon intime van der Kemp, a man of 
learning, integrity and courage." 

potentiary, and " having no special re 
French Court, he made a tour to Holla' 

i rung ai the 
. !j of August, 

T Original owned by ii&inss^>i7Mniia:TMistoric£iilf^xmiei^oX.i' 


a war. 
issue ? 
man, and c 
difficult and 


in his stead, 
...... VI y. a.ns four weeks 

ceeded with it to Hol- to procure a loan in that 

ime ineffectual, but which at last 

..i. A/n. Hev., vol. ii., p. 535. 

oil were unacquainted that I was r'->r»'j>elled 

nsj before I wa.- n- 

:)ce. V/iU ^rr _ .„n- 

lo see and 

., ..V ,.,. .^.. . ..:s enthusiastic 

ie Neufville's, and 

i^.^-iiian, and its noble 

!e esteem of that worthy 

negotiations in the most 

' ul . . . for America 

;ou remember a dinn 




1 -^^ 







■ ^ 







friends of America, like John Luzac^ and the 
Capellens, would so risk their money ; even 
Capellen of Marsch hesitated till convinced by 

this Fizeaux loan, but gives the loan of 1782 as the first Holland 
loan. See p. 15. 

Bolles's Financial History of the United States, p. 355, says that 
" the Fizeaux loan of 51,000 florins became due Jan. i, 1788." 

' This was John Luzac,* the great scholar and lawyer, Professor of 
History and Greek Literature at Leyden, editor of the Leyden Gazette, 
who was one of the most useful friends in Holland to Mr. Adams. f 
He " became naturally acquainted with the family of the Luzacs, in 
Leyden, whose gazette has been very useful to our cause, and who 
are excellent people. M. John Luzac drew up the two petitions of 
Leyden to their Regency.":}: 

"He is one of the sound hearts and choice spirits, that I most loved 
and esteemed in this World. . . . My Wife, My Daughter and 
my two sons all knew him and revered him. He is a large Portion 
of the salt of the Earth, and if it were not for a few such Lotts, it 
seems to me, the whole Sodom must soon be burn'd up. 
I shall never forget the Evenings I spent with him, with his Father 
and Unkle, one of four score and the other near it. These venerable 
sages entertained me with the Controversies in your Country between 
the Maritime Provinces and the Inland; between Navy and Army. 
They told me of Addresses to the Prince of orange in their youth in 
which the speaker pronounced the Words ' Ships! Ships! Schippen! 
Schippen ! forgive me if I have forgotten the Dutch Word. 

"I have always cried 'Ships! Ships!' Hamiltons Hobby Horse was 
Troops! Troops ! " || 

In March, 1807, came the tidings in a letter from Mr. Adams of 

* For Biographical Notice from the yournal dc I 'Empire, see 
Monthly Anthology for October, 1809. 

f Adams's Life and Letters, vol. i., p. 330. 

X Dip, Corres, Am. Rev., vol. iii., p. 640. 

II Adams to v. d. K., MSS. letters, 1806-1807-1808. Penna. Hist. 


'!i ^n . 'CbitaLcu tiu cuuvuiet. 

ves the loan of 1782 as the first Holland 

ancial History of the United States, p. 355, says that 

loan of 51,000 florins becar-' ' - - ^--. i, 1788." 

ohn Luzac,* the great scho yer, Professor of 

:'i <_' reek Literature at Le)' 'xfo. Gazette, 

one of the most useful fn r. Adanis.f 

lie " Ijecame naturally acquainted with 1 , Luzacs, in 

Lcyden, whose ga-ette hn- been very usci -e, and who 

are excellent \ ic drew up the two petitions of 

Leyden to the; <>f I J 

"He is one of th.. v . r-X^''??^ -W^<f(^^ sj.irits, that I most loved 

ay between 

and Army. 

forgotten the Dutch 

-_i.;...-i' u,„-. 

■' 1- t ' r 



X Dip. 

H Adanib lo v. a. 

, it>o6-jtSo7-i8o8. Penna. Hist. 


the letters of Trumbull and Livingston, trans- 
lated, published, and circulated in 1779 by 
van der Kemp and Capellen of Pol, who in 
January, 1782, again invested 16,000 gulden, 

the death of Luzac in the great gunpowder explosion at Leyden, 
which happened between the houses where van der Kemp and his 
sister lived. " A sister-in-law, niece and cousin, our best and oldest 
friends, two families of Luzac, two, perhaps three, of La Pole, that 
of de Gyzelaer, and of Vreede the friend of my bosom, resided there. 
In the evening I communicated the event to Mrs. van der Kemp, 
Luzac had been her friend long before she knew me, a friend for 
more than forty years, a friend to her wlien I was in confinement. 

" He honoured me with his confidence and his intimate friendship, 
and I will pay him a part of my gratitude, the last offering perhaps 
which I may bring to the altar of my friendship, although it may 
never meet the public eye. Among the first of the citizens when 
their liberties were assailed, to brave the impending danger, he often 
weathered the storm alone. Not popular clamor, nor lures of the 
court, nor the threats of a misguided prince could make him swerve 
a hair's breadth from the path of duty. Above fear and hope he 
stood at his post without reward. —A staunch Republican but a devout 
lover of order. — An admirer of the British institutions, an adept in 
the science of well-balanced government, he did not believe that the 
wise and good tho' in affluent circumstances were therefore the worst 
to be entrusted with the care of our lives and property — and laughed 
at the Jacobin millennium. So stood he till the Revolution of 1795, 
when a popular Assembly poisoned with the French spirit, robbed 
him and his brother of their property, and he was driven from his 
chair of the Greek language, and of Dutch History, for teaching his 
students their duties as men and citizens. Scorning to ' receive 
unearned his country's money,' he declined to accept a pension of 
2000 guilders a year, offered later in 1798. 

"A tender father, an ardent friend, a sincere Christian, death could 
not surprise him unprepared."* " 

*v. d. K. Note in MS. " Use of Copper," Buffalo Hist. Soc. 


besides going about in person to urge sub- 

The capture of Henry Laurens on his way 
to the Netherlands involved the finding of his 
papers, which roused the wrath of England. 
The cause of the United States was thrown 
into " extremest disfavour" in Holland, and the 
discovery of Capellen's American correspond- 
ence seemed to cut off the last chance of his 
restoration. He took refuge for a time in 
Amsterdam, and even contemplated leaving a 
country "where land is fast losing its value, 
and the Republic is at its end." Pol, Apple- 
tern, and most of his other properties — he had 
little but real estate — were for sale. 

Yet he encouraged Adams, who " was 
avoided like a pestilence." " Frequenting all 
classes as I do I know that three-fourths of the 
people are friendly to America ; the court party 
alone will never be won. Do not discourage 
your chiefs — send often petits paquebots with 
true information to check the British tales,^ wait, 

' Every extravagant lie vi'as circulated to damage the cause, " it has 
never suffered from anything more than from the failure of giving and 
receiving intelligence." — Adams's Life and Letters, vol. vii., p. 245. 

a,Dout in 

Henry ^..-. ^.. 

inds involved the finding of his 

ich roused the wrath of England. 

use of the United States was thrown 

into " extremest disfavour" in Holland, and the 

s Amt jrrespond- 

ence seemed to cut off the last chance of his 

restoration. He took refuge for a time in 

\rp,ster,dam, n/id everi. <x)n tempi ate/l .leaying 3.r 
rac simile oj Page of Boo re Lbnlaining Lisf of 

Capelleii of PoTs Property. 

true inl< 

e a pestilenct requeni 

-s 1 do I know that three-fourths 
friendly to America; tl- - 
'^^er be won. ^'- ' 
-end often ith 

itocht. cdes.^wait, 

' Every extravagant lie was circulat > 
never suffered from ai 
receiving intelligence 

:e the cause, " it has 

'ailure of giving and 

J, vol. vii., p. 245. 

^i ^ Ji <i ^ ^ ^ 



^ ^ 




,gi'^ c^o *^ 

^•/^ 'S K /\ 



"i ii « 





guilders was obtained, at a moment when it 
was of essential service in maintaining the 
overstrained credit of the United States. 

" Nor yet did this beneficial interposition 
of Holland stop with the first loan. When 
America, at the close of seven years of war, 
was exhausted and gasping for breath, the 
funds which she was enabled, for a time, to 
draw from this source were most opportune to 
keep her from sinking altogether. France, 
to whom alone she had been able to look for 
aid in the early stages of the contest, was 
beginning to give signs of the distress which 
resulted so deplorably afterwards. From the 
date of the first successful loan until Mr. Adams 
returned to America, in 1788, he kept up his 
relations with the bankers of Amsterdam, and 
through them succeeded in procuring succes- 
sive advances, which carried his country safely 
over the interval of disorder previous to the 
consolidation of the federal government. This 
great step, once taken, soon rendered further 
assistance unnecessary. The people began to 
gather up their resources, and to pour, almost 

enciai s-t ,:': m lUciiiiLd.iuiiii' ihe 
^ '-' ' t of the United States. 

this beneficial interposition 
with the first loan. When 
America, a lose of seven years of war, 

wa sted and gasping for breath, the 

funds which she was enabled, for a time, to 
draw from this source were most opportune to 
keep/'JW^r ^J^An Vdck 'Berckel] Ftht^'MMi'mi^^frotn 
'- -the United Netherlands to the United States. 

:A\ cai'i 

of dis' 

con^. , ... ..;e fe<'*^' ^ his 

great step, once take' arther 

assistance unnecessar) gan to 

gather up their resources almost 


without an effort, into the coffers of the treasury 
sufficient sums to pay their Dutch friends an 
ample compensation for the confidence they 
had been wilHng to extend in their hour of 
need. And in witnessing this process, no one 
enjoyed a more unmingled satisfaction than 
Mr. Adams. To him who had done so much 
to persuade the Dutchmen to trust the honour 
of his countrymen, the sense that these had 
redeemed all the pledges he ventured to give 
for them was even more gratifying to his pride 
than if he had been acquitting a personal ob- 
ligation of his own." ^ 

" The Dutch really deserve the affection, 
even the gratitude of America," wrote Capel- 
len to Trumbull, "as it is here the people who 
have forced the government to declare her in- 
dependence and conclude the alliance." Thus 
** with generous sympathy the aged common- 
wealth saluted the rising Republic of the 
West," and Adams "thanked God that He 
has enabled me to plant the standard of the 
United States at the Hague, where it will 

' Adams's Life and Letters, vol. i., p. 351. (See Appendix A.) ^ 


wave for ever. I am now satisfied and dread 
nothing." ■• 

You desire to know the popular leaders I have 
formed acquaintance with. The two noblemen, the 
Baron van der Capellen de Pol of Overyssel, and the 
Baron van der Capellen of Marsch of Gelderland I 
have formed an acquaintance with : the former very- 
early after my arrival. I have had frequent and in- 
timate conversations with him, and he has been of the 
utmost service to our cause. His unhappy situation 
and unjust expulsion from his seat in government, 
the opposition of the Court and of his colleagues in 
the regency make it delicate to write freely concern- 
ing this nobleman. He has an independent fortune 
though not called rich in this country. His parts 
and learning are equal to any — his zeal and activity 
superior. I dare not say in what a multitude of 
ways he has served us ; posterity will perhaps know 
them all.= 

" How I have got through my troubles I 
know not," wrote Capellen in May, 1782, and 

' " Whatever you may think ; I know, that, if ever my name de- 
served to be mentioned, from my Birth, on the 19th of October 1775 
to this 29th of May 1814 ; it ought to have been noted in Holland in 
1780, or 1781 or 1782, for this Period was the most important of my 
whole Life, excepting one ; and that was the impeachment of the 
Judges in Massachusetts." — Adams to v. d. K., MS. letter, May 29, 
1814. Penna. Hist. Soc. 

"Adams to Livingston, Life and Letters, vol. vii., pp. 621-2. \ 


he expected many more. But at last, as the 
autumn approached, owing- to the turn in 
affairs which had so favoured the American 
cause, it was no longer safe, said Adams, to 
disregard the popular demand for the Baron's 
restoration. The States of Overyssel yielded, 
and recalled him without conditions as he 
would submit to none. 

When formally apprised of the vote, and 
requested to appear in the Land Tag, then as- 
sembled in the Stadhuis of Zwolle, Capellen 
quietly sent word that, as it was about to ad- 
journ, he would not take his seat until the next 
session. The invitation, however, was at once 
repeated, Baron van Bentinck Werkeren, his 
wife's brother, being deputed to conduct him 
to the Assembly. 

Without further delay they passed from the 
house of the Secretary of Zwolle, through a 
lane, and thus avoiding the streets crowded 
with his friends, quietly gained the Hall.^ 

As once again he crossed the threshold of 

' Now (1896) the Stadhuis, or "Bureaux van het provinciaal 
Bestuur van Overyssel." In the library are many contemporary 
publications regarding Baron van der Capellen. 


wave for ever. I am now satisfied and dread 
nothinof." ^ 

You desire to know the popular leaders I have 
formed acquaintance with. The two noblemen, the 
Baron van der Capellen de Pol of Overyssel, and the 
Baron van der Capellen of Marsch of Gelderland I 
have formed an acquaintance with : the former very- 
early after my arrival. I have had frequent and in- 
timate conversations with him, and he has been of the 
utmost service to our cause. His unhappy situation 
and unjust expulsion from his seat in government, 
the opposition of the Court and of his colleagues in 
the regency make it delicate to write freely concern- 
ing this nobleman. He has an independent fortune 
though not called rich in this country. His parts 
and learning are equal to any — his zeal and activity 
superior. I dare not say in what a multitude of 
ways he has served us ; posterity will perhaps know 
them all.'' 

" How I have got through my troubles I 
know not," wrote Capellen in May, 1782, and 

' " Whatever you may think ; I know, that, if ever my name de- 
served to be mentioned, from my Birth, on the 19th of October 1775 
to this 29th of May 1814 ; it ought to have been noted in Holland in 
1780, or 1 78 1 or 1782, for this Period was the most important of my 
whole Life, excepting one ; and that was the impeachment of the 
Judges in Massachusetts." — Adams to v. d. K., MS. letter, May 29, 
1814. Penna. Hist. Soc. 

-Adams to Livingston, Life and Letters, vol. vii., pp. 621-2. | 


he expected many more. But at last, as the 
autumn approached, owing to the turn in 
affairs which had so favoured the American 
cause, it was no longer safe, said Adams, to 
disregard the popular demand for the Baron's 
restoration. The States of Overyssel yielded, 
and recalled him without conditions as he 
would submit to none. 

When formally apprised of the vote, and 
requested to appear in the Land Tag, then as- 
sembled in the Stadhuis of Zwolle, Capellen 
quietly sent word that, as it was about to ad- 
journ, he would not take his seat until the next 
session. The invitation, however, was at once 
repeated, Baron van Bentinck Werkeren, his 
wife's brother, being deputed to conduct him 
to the Assembly. 

Without further delay they passed from the 
house of the Secretary of Zwolle, through a 
lane, and thus avoiding the streets crowded 
with his friends, quietly gained the Hall.^ 

As once again he crossed the threshold of 

' Now (1896) the Stadhuis, or "Bureaux van het provinciaal 
Bestuur van Overyssel." In the library are many contemporary 
publications regarding Baron van der Capellen. 


that beautiful room where every third year the 
States of Overyssel met, bearing with him the 
laurels of his three-fold toils for the recognition 
of the United States, the abrogation of the 
Corvees, and the better security for the rights 
of all regents involved in his own restoration, 
he was yet outwardly unmoved. Silently he 
bowed to the Assembly, silently again he 
bowed to the presiding officer's welcome, and 
then with the other members, many of whom 
had been unable to hide their emotion, went 
from the Stadhuis by the main door to the 
Sassenstraat, thronged with exulting citizens 
who blessed their Father, henceforth to live 
for them/ 

" It seems to me a dream," he wrote Trum- 
bull, " an illusion, to see illuminations on my 
account, and to hear along the streets a vivat 
Capellen, instead of a vivat Oranje.^' 

Those persons who wish to lend us money, wrote 
Adams, and are able to lend us any considerable sum 
are the Patriots who are willing to risk the resent- 
ment of the British and the Stadtholder for the sake 

' Van der Kemp. The full details, parliamentary and otherwise, 
are given in his Capellen Regent. 


of extending the commerce, strengthening the po- 
Htical interest and preserving the hberties of their 

While Capellen was too conscientious not to 
seek these advantages for his people as a duty, 
his deliofht seems to have been to break his 
lances for those new doctrines of human rights 
for which, like van der Kemp, and, as van der 
Kemp would have us believe, many another, 
was willing to sacrifice everything. So also 
in matters of faith. Personally "a conscien- 
tious believer according to the doctrines of 
the Synod of Dort," he was liberal towards 
those who differed, and in his political career 
always stood for complete religious freedom. 

His objects were the same as van der Kemp's, 
and like him, and most of their party, he sought 
them only by strictly constitutional steps. 

In the judgment of a Hollander of our own 
time, Capellen's master motive was to fill a 
sphere of activity useful and comformable to 
his situation. He was undoubtedly regarded 
as a o^reat man. He was the first who tried to 
give the Patriot party a national organisation, 


he honestly believed in his reforms, and how- 
ever his policy as to France may be criti- 
cised, it is conceded to have been prompted 
by the purest patriotism. Of its influence on 
American affairs, Mr. Adams wrote to van der 
Kemp years after, that the separation of the 

from England, Union with France and Spain and 
their Treaty with us was the event which ultimately 
turned the scale of the American Revolutionary 
War and produced the Peace of 1783. But the 
truth is, that neither France, nor England, nor the 
friends of France or England in America would 
even acknowledge it to be of any weight. And 
consequently it has fallen into total oblivion — But 
in some future day it may be thought of more 

Eighteen months only of life now remained 
to Baron Johan Derk. Reckless of increasing 
ill health, far from strong, the more he was 
drawn into politics the less he regarded fatigue. 
His correspondence grew, he made frequent 
trips to Holland and other of the Provinces in 
all weathers and usually on horseback, besides 

' January 3, 1823, MS. letter, Penna. Hist. Soc. 


constantly making addresses, all for the Patriot 
cause, and still was he " contraband with all 
attached to the Court." 

After the death in 1 780 of his father, who 
bequeathed him only "lands lying here and 
there, all neglected to the greatest degree," 
Capellen had lived chiefly at Appletern, a 
property inherited from his mother, " a large 
manor-house embosomed in tall thickets near 
its village, whose lords were early famous in 
the Gelder Wars," though in 1783 and 1784 
his public duties must have called him to 
Zwolle or Deventer or Kampen whenever the 
States of Overyssel met. 

In May, 1784, he was with his wife and 
daughter at the house of his kinsman, friend, 
and Baron Pallandt van Zuithem in Zwolle. 
Here the last letter of his immense correspond- 
ence was written from his bed, giving in ex- 
cuse for its tardiness a pathetic account of his 
sufferings, after which he discusses the public 
matters still so near his heart. One week later 
he sank under a sudden rheumatic attack, " ex- 
piring calmly on the 6th of June, with a smile, 


encouraging and consoling his friends to the 
end." He was buried in the family vault in 
the church at Gorsel/ Shortly after, how- 
ever, his widow with Baron van der Capellen 
of Marsch and his brothers, being opposed, as 
he was, to intra-mural interment, built a new 
family vault in the open field near the village. 
Here they now laid his remains, and hither 
within a year his wife was brought to rest 
beside him. 

In the autumn of 1787, however. Count van 
Rechteren Westerveld, who had married their 
only child, removed the bodies, and, it was said, 
to the ancestral grave in the church itself, for 
unknown and hostile hands had already muti- 
lated the escutcheon on the wall enclosing the 
new burial-place, though for a time it was pro- 
tected from further outrage by a detail of 

' Gorsel is easily reached by carriage from Zutphen. The road 
passes a cemetery, enclosed and locked, on the left, before entering 
the little hamlet, which embraces a few houses, a substantial school- 
house, a pretty inn — De Roskam — under a wide-spreading tree, and 
the church. This is very small, and Protestant in every line and 
tint of its simple interior. On the wall, over the corner pew, to the 
right of the little pulpit with steps and sounding-board, is the monu- 
ment of the van der Capellen family. 


On the night of August 7, 1788, the birth- 
day of the Princess of Orange, and the eve of 
the day on which Baron van der Capellen of 
Marsch was sentenced to death, the whole 
structure was blown with gunpowder to the 
four winds of heaven. 

To-day the stranger who asks in Gorsel for 
the tomb of Baron van der Capellen of Pol is 
led to the tiny church, and is shown a marble 
on the wall. It has a long inscription to cer- 
tain members of the family of another line, the 
latest date 1 786, but no word on its wide blank 
spaces of the bold liberal who helped the 
struggling American colonies. 

If here indeed he lies, the genius of Amer- 
ica might well take up her style, and fill the 
silent tablet with a tribute to his name. 

The Patriot movement is said " to have 
aided the disintegration of the old Republic 
and to have produced nothing stable, and to 
have been speedily forgotten," possibly be- 
cause it has also been forgotten that popular 
representation, no military usurpation of civil 
authority, and the freedom of the press won 


are matters of course, instead of being the 
watchwords of a perilous cause, to which the 
Patriot Regents solemnly pledged their lives 
and fortunes.' 

Had Baron van der Capellen lived as long 
as did van der Kemp he would have seen the 
demonstration of his theory of law and order 
resting on the authority of the people, in the 
new and wonderful political fabric which he 
and his party had aided to found beyond the 
Atlantic. And he would have rejoiced as did 
van der Kemp and Mappa in 1814, when with 
" tears of joy and gratitude " they received in 
their American home the news of the inde- 
pendence of the Netherlands and the announce- 
ment of the new Dutch government, although 
it was with the person of a king. This was 
not, as has been assumed, because they had 
come to a different mind, but because with 
William I. was granted a constitution which 
brought in its train liberty greater than that 
of which the most ardent Patriots had ever 

' See "Acte de Confederation entre un grand nonibre de Regens- 
patriots." M^moires, R. J. van der Capellen. " Sillem. 



IN his ministry at Leyden van der Kemp, it 
is said, remarked that he sought to make 
not only good Christians, but good citizens ; 
be that as it may, his sermons dealt much with 
politics. Believing with all the Patriots that 
the danger of a standing army could be best 
averted by the existence of an armed citizen 
force or militia, according to the eighth article 
of the Union of Utrecht (the point of depart- 
ure of their party, which considered its neglect 
a great national calamity), he aided to form 
and maintain at Leyden the Society of Man- 
ual Exercise for Freedom and Fatherland, 
one of the many militia companies springing 
up throughout the country. It is said that, 
once his morning service finished, his habit 
was immediately to place himself in uniform 



at the head of the Schuttery. To the censure 
which followed he was indifferent, but when 
the Council of the city refused to support a 
petition for various redresses headed by him 
and signed by three hundred and eleven other 
burghers, he offered his resignation to the So- 
ciety, stating also in a published letter that 
" he is no longer of use, and that his duties as 
husband and father oblige him to leave all 
else, and confine the circle of his activity to 
that of his family and friends." 

Having, however, received the permission of 
the people of his congregation to leave Leyden 
for a time to settle the estate of a relative, he 
came no more. In vain they hoped he would 
again take up his pastoral staff, but he headed 
a Vry corps at Wyk to Duurstede, and from 
now on was simply a Vry-corpist} 

" Alternately cursed and blessed, mocked 
and praised, enigmatical like many men in 
that time of perplexity, he was to play a not 
unimportant part in this revolution which made 
an end of the old commonwealth and was to 

' Vry corps. A sort of voluntary army, recruited among the Pa- 
triots and sustained by them. See De Witt. 


prepare a new order." In spite of his resolve 
he had returned to public life, and now was re- 
garded as a leader of the opposition in the 
city of Wyk, which since September, 1783, 
had been very restive. Van der Kemp com- 
manded its corps of green jagers, and though 
the Utrecht government ordered it disbanded, 
the members one and all voted to continue to 
serve under him. 

The autobiography continues : 

Not long after I accepted the invitation to a din- 
ner from Commodore Gillon, and accompanied by 
Dr. Roeland de Kruyst went to Amsterdam once 
more, and made my first step on an American bot- 
tom, the South Carolijia, on the Y, where the Com- 
modore welcomed us. 

I supplied now occasionally the Political Carrier, 
the Post of the Lozver Rhiiie, and U Observateur 
Franqais with different articles, which too often 
wanted only the name to prove by whom they were 

In 1785 the editor of the Political Carrier being 
criminally prosecuted and imprisoned, I raised my 
voice in his defence in a letter printed in the Post 
of the Lower RJiiiie. I regretted that H. Calkoen, 
an eminent civilian, whom I respected, had been 
lured to defend the prosecution. He felt himself 


hurt, although I had exerted myself to avoid as- 
perity, but he was engaged for once in a bad cause. 
He replied with some acrimony in several letters. 
I answered ; R. Schimmelpenninck,' then a student 
at law, supported me; and Mr. J. C. Hespe'' was 
acquitted and enlarged, and wrote then with greater 
ease and more liberty than ever before. 

Now I published the History of the Admission of 
Johan Derk, Baron van der Capellen of Pol, into the 
Equestrian Order of Overyssel ; after a short inter- 
val of time, a Defence of Colonel Alexander Baron 
van der Capellen, formerly Chamberlain of his High- 
ness the Prince of Orange ; and lastly, with P. Vreede 
and P. van Schelle, Catalogue raisomie des Tableaux 
of the persons and distinguished partisans of the 
House of Orange, in answer to one given by the 
Court party to delineate the leaders of the Patriot 
party ; while in the same view, at the same time, 
another answer appeared from the united labours of 
Messrs. Turck and Spaen, both Judges of the Su- 
preme Court, assisted by my friend P. Paulus, with- 
out any previous concert. In this manner, always 
hurrying forward with a firm and deliberate step, I 
approached the end of my literary career ; but was 
day by day deeper entangled in the political laby- 
rinth, till at length it became utterly impossible to 
extricate myself if I had been willing. Once I tried 
it in earnest, but in vain. 

' Rutger Jan. Later one of the most distinguished men of Hol- 
land. Died. 1825. 

* Jan Christiaan Hespe, an Amsterdam lawyer who was a Patriot, 
and edited the Politicke Kruijer. 


Our militia was organized ; we, literally three in- 
dividuals only at the beginning, formed the plan 
and executed it, viz.: P. Vreede and Ph. Jur. On- 
daetje' of Utrecht, and myself. Soon Gordon ''joined 
his efforts to ours ; our friend Mappa promoted the 
same plan at Delft, and organized soon an excellent 
corps by his superior military knowledge, as he after- 
wards disciplined the small army which he com- 
manded as chief. 

I was associated with nearly every corps in any 
manner distinguished. Utrecht was thoroughly rev- 
olutionized ; but it was a revolution constitutionally 
begun and finished without a shadow of disorder, 
without injuring any individual's property, without 
spilling one single drop of blood. In the city of 
Wyk,'' as Calkoen sneeringly expressed it, " Nothing 
was done, or all was done, van der Kemp iDiico 
consuley Many of my best friends lamented that I 
went too far ; I that they fell short. " Never by 
halves " was my motto ; and I did not even suspect 
that anything feasible was impossible, if we sincerely 
exerted our whole strength for its execution. I was 
opposed. I hated the British influence then so pre- 
dominant at the Court, but could not bear that of 

' Probably Pieter Philip Jurian Quint Ondaatje. See De Witt, p. 

' Otto Derek, Colonel of the Pro Patria Club at Utrecht, and 
Captain-Lieutenant of the Cross Bow Company. He became well 
known in 1784 as a Patriot, and at the turn of affairs had to suffer, 
and his property was confiscated. His subsequent career is unknown. 

^"1785, Aug. I. I was unanimously elected Captain of the Pro- 
vincial Drilled Society Pro Pace et BcUo of Wyk near Duurstede." 


France. I knew and prognosticated that they would 
betray us, notwithstanding La Vauguyon's' assur- 
ances and Mont-Morin's '^ promises ; I warned my 
friends in time, but Cassandra's voice was raised 
in vain. The cause was, they were worthy men, 
mistrusted a fickle populace and many of its unprin- 
cipled leaders: they wished to humiliate the Stadt- 
holder, but declined, and were really averse to give 
better pledges for our own privileges and rights 
than their good faith. I left them, to appearance 
without regret, but lamented in my soul that fatal 
schism ; I joined openly the Democratic party pre- 
vailing in Utrecht, yet hoping, though it was hope's 
glimmer in the socket, to save the whole by a timely 
reconciliation of all the dissenting parts. 

[Leyden, December, 1785. 

So soon as I can persuade my wife to leave this 
place, I shall have the honour to ask for letters to 
America, though I fear that political affairs will not 
permit me so long a sojourn in this country, if I 
survive the hope of re-establishing liberty. 

October 31, 1786. 

For four years the state of this Republic compared 
with the United States has made me wish to change 
my dwelling, and the persuasion of the impossibility 
of supporting myself in America without property 
has prevented, though this would not have hindered 

' French Ambassador at the Hague. 

"^ Montmorin Saint Herem, Armand Marc, Comte de. Succeeded 
Vergennes as French Minister for Foreign Affairs. 


my retraitc had either the Stadtholder or the aristo- 
crats dealt the fatal blow to liberty. My fortune is 
now bettered, I hope it would suffice to support my 
wife and children in Europe. Could I live honestly, 
with ease, dignity, and reputation, on a property of 
16,000 or 17,000 florins, or 700 or 800 florins a year, in 
America? If this income will suffice, other families 
will follow, and this hope will encourage my dear 
wife. I prefer the country as cheaper, and hope to 
persuade my wife to go, to be happy in a free 
country, and to find there fairer fortune for her 
children. I would sell furniture, library, prop- 
erty, immobile, so as to embark in May or June, 

Things turn badly here, we have already arranged 
our domestic affairs in these two cities [Utrecht and 
Wyk], but to what purpose, since we are always in the 
same peril, the Provincial grievances still unredressed, 
and the troops whom we must watch night and day 
continue cantonne's dans le plat pays}^ 

I knew that de Gyzelaer, van Berckel, Luzac, and 
Cau ^ ever remained my ardent and sincere friends 

'v. d. K. to Adams, MS. letters. From the original French. 

^ Jan Jacob Cau of Stellendam — born 1750 — lived at his country- 
place, " the house of Ter Horst" near Voorschoten, not far from Ley- 
den, where he had taken the degree of Doctor of Laws, though he 
did not practise the profession. He was devoted to the Patriot 
cause, and was in 1786 a member of the Committee of Defence. In 
1787 he sought to promote the negotiations at Paris, but later with- 
drew from all political activity. He was an upright, candid, and 
charitable man. He seems never to have forgotten his old friend 
van der Kemp, who often mentions him in later years. He died at 
Ter Horst in 1836. 


and were not scared at the mob, wherever it stood. 
Ere long the scabbard was thrown away ; the first 
blow was intended by the Stadtholder, and received 
by him, and severely felt. A compromise was pro- 
posed by a deputation from the States of Groningen 
and Overyssel ; I was sent as a delegate from Wyk 
to this congress. We consented to abstain from 
hostilities, neither to make use of the inundations — 
the only terrible weapon in our power for our 
defence, as we were left by all our friends, under 
various pretexts, to defend ourselves — while they 
engaged solemnly from their side not to commit any 
hostilities during this truce. Notwithstanding this 
pledged faith, for which the above said deputies of 
two provinces had made themselves responsible, our 
weak and nearly defenceless city was on the third 
night after this congress, under cover of a deep 
darkness, nearly surrounded by a military force of 
1500 men with six pieces of heavy artillery and two 

The pusillanimous Magistrates cried incessantly 
" Open the gates, open the gates ; do not sacrifice 
our wives and children, the military will do us no 
harm," and indeed the commanding officer. Baron de 
Quadt, had solemnly engaged by an officer sent for 
this purpose, " that he only came by order of his 
Highness, to garrison the city," and assured by 
mouth my friend de Nys ' on his honour, that, if he 

' Adrian de Nys, in 1787 commander at Wyk, taken prisoner, re- 
moved to Amersfoort and confined in the Haazenberg, Town Hall 
of Utrecht with van der Kemp. Neither was set free until each had 


was admitted without resistance, no person within 
the city should be injured in his person or estate. I 
tried in vain to raise their spirits ; in vain I called 
duty and honour to my aid ; they vociferated louder 
and more and more ; the confusion increased ; noth- 
ing was heard but " Open the gates " ; so that even 
my friend de Nys, the first in command, would have 
given way. I then took boldly the lead, and told 
the Magistrates that they were in office and should 
be obeyed, but only on written orders duly signed 
by their Secretary ; and that if they hesitated one 
moment longer to give my friend that pledge that 
they commanded the surrender, I should without 
any further delay, command to fire. " They would 
— they would — all that we might wish, but first 
open the gates." " No one single moment longer 
trifling ; execute this instant, or wait the conse- 
quences." Then they complied with my injunc- 
tions. My friend received their orders and while he 
made the preparations to open the gates, 1 led the 
whole of our armed force, in number about ninety 
men, through the gate which was not occupied ; so 
that of the whole garrison, not one remained in the 
city, besides my friend de Nys, and old gentleman 

given security amounting to about 49,000 guilders. When the 
French invaded Holland in 1795, he aided Dumouriez, sacrificing 
his fortune. Later he emigrated with his large family to Java. He 
was made collector of the stamp duties at Batavia, where he died in 
1830, well on in years. tie was probably the last man to wear the 
old-fashioned garments and the hair in a queue : he rode a large 
horse to the time of his death, and had every appearance of an 
accomplished horseman and old cavalry officer. 


de la Faille, whose advanced age prevented his 
retreat, and myself. 

This event took place on the 5th of July, 1787, 
notwithstanding the declaration of the Cabinet of 
Versailles of considering the beginning of hostilities 
as a declaration of war, notwithstanding that we, 
personally, had been taken under its special protec- 
tion, and that unasked. The Count de Vergennes ' 
wrote especially to this point to the Due de la 
Vauguyon on the 15th of March, 1786, and Monsieur 
le Due permitted me when with him to copy these 
interesting despatches. 

While the troops marched into the city, we retired 
to our lodgings, changed our military accoutrements 
for our usual clothes, and waited the issue of the 
catastrophe. Between seven and eight in the morn- 
ing the door of our room was opened by an officer ; 
but seeing us he asked pardon and retreated, saying 
our landlord had not given him notice that the 
room was occupied, or he should have avoided this 
apparent intrusion : we requested him to enter, as 
we were willing to give up the room : when approach- 
ing me a little nearer, and looking at me with a 
perturbed countenance, he said, " Will you deem it 
not uncourteous if I ask your name? Is it van der 
Kemp? My God!" he exclaimed, "must I en- 
counter you in this situation?" " Art thou then," 
I replied, " Baron de Merwede ? " " Yes, the brother 
of your friend ! what can I do for you ? " '" Conduct 

^ Vergennes, Charles Gravier, Comte de. French Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, 1774-1787. 


US in safety to the house of our friend de la Faille." 
"I shall; but there are billeted several field ofificers." 
" Never mind this." He was our guide and safe- 
guard. No objection was made there by any one 
of the officers to our admission into our worthy 
friend's family. 

There were the Baron Buzek, the Viscount Colonel 
de Thouars, and Lieutenant Macdonald. The house 
was directly surrounded with sentinels, one at the 
door of our room, with two sergeants in the entry. 
We enjoyed, I may say, the polite society of these 
gallant men, some of them acquainted formerly with 
my father, while young Macdonald seemed deeply 
interesting himself in our lot, and accompanied me 
every time when I wished to walk in the garden. A 
general amnesty was decreed on the 9th, and pub- 
lished, in which de Nys and I were nominally com- 
prehended ; but nevertheless, we were awakened 
from our sleep by an adjutant of the regiment of 
Baden, to prepare ourselves within an hour to be 
conducted to Amersfoort, as we actually were at 
three in the morning in a coach and four, surrounded 
by a detachment of dragoons and two sergeants 
with loaded pistols on the opposite side. At 
Amersfoort we were lodged in a public building, 
all surrounded with sentinels, and a guard of a 
sergeant with twelve men in the adjacent room, and 
two civil officers in the room which we occupied.' 

The first task I performed in my confinement was 

' For a detailed account see Chalmot, who describes the jeers and 
insults they suffered. 


to dispatch a letter to my congregation, resigning to 
them my pastoral charge, which was accepted in a 
most kind and flattering manner, as I was informed 
by their scriba [clerk] John de Kruyft, in the name 
of a full consistory. 

No correspondence with our relatives was per- 
mitted, except that which was inspected by the 
Baron of Amerongen, Lord of Natewitsch. In- 
formed that a letter of Mrs. van der Kemp was 
kept back, I addressed the noble Lord in a signifi- 
cant letter, urging that this limited correspondence 
was offered by them, not solicited by us as a favour, 
that I was very indifferent about its continuance ; 
but in such a case I demanded that the letter now 
withholden should be directly returned to Mrs. van 
der Kemp as her property, on which they could not 
make any legal claims. It was sent me the same day 
by his secretary, with the apology that the contents 
of the letter forbade him to send it without an 
express order of the States. I will acknowledge 
that the old partisans of the Prince of Orange 
treated us, generally, with great courtesy, the mob 
with insolence, and they who had become rene- 
gadoes of the Patriot party with a rancorous malice. 

Nothing in the meantime was left untried to lure 
and persuade Mrs. van der Kemp to appeal to the 
Prince Stadtholder, and solicit his intercession. But 
your dear mother, so worthy your ardent love, so 
deserving your reverential regard, withstood even 
the entreaties of her own brother,' then a member of 

' Peter Anthony Vos, 1 731-1792. 

to '?' congregation, rt 

tl ich was ace 

. jiidence with our relatives was per- 

^^pt that which was inspected by the 

_ Amerongen, Lord of Natewitsch. In- 

vi that a letter of Mrs. van der Kemp was 

l>L back, I addressed the noble Lord in a signifi- 

mt letter, urging that this Hmited correspondence 

was offered by them, not solicited by us as a favour, 

that I was very indifferent about its continuance ; 

but in ^9^nms!^W^mMwdf7^^iM>^d!f;Mm/^,('-^)^/io\v 

W l^^oUA^f trait paifite^i' \itiring Ms in^thnm'e'ht iH fhe" •ffotazY^rg 
d ' ' (a part of the old Town Hall of Utrecht), and given to ' :>t 
his wife by a number of his friends. y 


y with a 
.mtime \y e 

a der K •' 

I ;id solici 

your ;, so w^ ident love, so 

desc" - .everenti: ithstood even 

the e of her own n a member of 

' Peter Anthon 


the States General. Her firmness was as unshaken 
as her love. 

Many books have been published in Holland 
upon these times and events, in which much can 
be found to illustrate and make clearer van der 
Kemp's story. Beginning with the reign of Wil- 
liam v./ though the other Courts of Europe far 
outshone the Hague in splendour of installa- 
tion, yet during the first ten years under this 
Stadtholder, the gay little Dutch capital is said 
to have yielded to none in the brilliance of its 
festivities, which had also, according to a con- 
temporary, the added and rarer quality of 
being extremely amusing. Wow however, the 
clouds had gathered, and the two parties. 
Patriot and Orange, had formed outside, while 
within, German intrigues divided the Orange 
adherents yet again into the factions of the 
Prince and the Princess. Apparently united in 
their domestic life, in politics it was otherwise. 
The Prince was amiable and irresolute, his 
wife clever and ambitious, and gradually she 
usurped an influence and authority damaging 

' See H. van A., Uit de Gedetikschriften, 


to his prestige. His audience room became 
deserted as hers was more and more crowded. 
Yet party hatred laid all unpopular measures 
at her door, while she alienated even those old 
Orange supporters who attached themselves 
exclusively to the House, not necessarily to 
its members by marriage. 

When finally the States of Holland deprived 
the Stadtholder, together with other rights, of 
the command of the garrison of the Hague, the 
Prince, deeply injured, in spite of his wife's 
opposition, departed to Nymegen, where again 
the ancient town of Charlemagne was filled 
with the life and the parade of the Court. 

Utrecht now became more than ever the 
centre of the Patriotic activity, Amersfoort, 
fourteen miles away, that of the Orange party ; 
both took on a military air, and by the begin- 
ning of 1787 it seemed as if, before the year 
ended, a oreneral civil war would break out. 

Frederick the Great, though often remon- 
strating with Holland, had nevertheless stayed 
his hand, seeing, as it was said, little to gain 
for Prussia, and caring less for a woman who 


meddled with politics, and trampled on her 
husband's prerogative. Splendidly as he had 
once been received at Het Loo, he would 
never repeat his visit, nor take up his niece's 

The Princess, advised, it was said, by the En- 
glish and Prussian ministers, now meditated a 
step to force the States of the Province of Hol- 
land to measures which should rouse her uncle 
Frederick the Great to that active intervention 
she had so often vainly asked. It was many 
days before the Prince's consent was gained, 
however, unwilling as he was to be disturbed 
in the comparative tranquillity which he was 
enjoying in Nymegen, and in his frequent visits 
to Het Loo, " that glorious country seat in 
the heart of hilly wooded Gelderland," where 
he delighted in his rides through the forest, 
and fishing in the Udlermeir, both more to his 
taste than the hard hunting so dear to his pre- 
decessors. Weary of contention, however, by 
July he yielded, and early one morning Wil- 
helmina and her suite drove out of the gate of 
the Burg on her way to the Hague. All went 


well until the frontier of Holland was more 
than passed. Then the famous arrest of the 
cavalcade by the troops of that Province began 
a performance whose consequences were in- 
deed to be tragic, but whose details would fur- 
nish a comedy. Forbidden to proceed, the 
Princess returned to Nymegen, inwardly well 
pleased with the success of her scheme. 

Her formal complaints to the States of the 
Province of Holland met only with perfunctory 
notice. The Patriots at first seemed to triumph, 
but at the moment when hope all but failed 
the Stadtholder, Frederick the Great died, 
and the new King of Prussia found it con- 
venient to demand an dclatante satisfaction for 
the insult to his sister. 

History tells us how the Province of Holland 
refused, how she strengthened her army, ex- 
amined her dykes, and prepared for the worst, 
while the Patriot party, already drilled and 
armed, claimed the promised aid of France. 
But France made no sign, and the Prussian 
troops under the reigning Duke of Brunswick, 
who had prudently consulted the moon and 


the tides, crossed the frontier. In a fortnight, 
though not without bloodshed, Amsterdam was 
taken, the revolution was accomplished to the 
surprise of all, and " satisfaction " promised to 
the Princess of Oranofe. 

Van der Kemp during this time had been 
detained in prison, but his autobiography gives 
the course of events in their proper sequence : 

When the Prussians had entered the territory of 
the Republic and penetrated into the Province of 
Utrecht, after the Cabinet of Versailles was lulled to 
sleep by the Marquis of Dorset, while yet the lead- 
ing men of the Patriot party were fed with hope 
that a formidable [French] army was advancing to 
their support, yea, was actually in the neighbour- 
hood of St. Omer, then, after the evacuation of 
Utrecht, we were in the same manner conveyed 
thither, and guarded with the same care. At our 
arrival in that city, where we had been so often 
welcomed with hosannas, we were first conducted to 
the lodgings of General Baron von Munster ' and in- 
troduced into his audience room, where we met him 
surrounded by a large number of ofificers and genteel 

That unhappy man so far forgot his eminent 
station, and put his otherwise recommendable char- 
acter so far in jeopardy as to insult us. He first 

' Military commander in the Province of Utrecht. 



mocked with unfeeling bitterness my friend de Nys 
for his presenting the city of Wyk with two field 
pieces ; he kept a dignified silence ; then casting a 
contemptuous look upon me, said "You sir! with 
your delicate pen ! It was ' Madame la Princesse I ' ' 
You reap now the fruits." My heart was bleeding; I 
stared at him and my eye was the significant inter- 
preter of its silent language. In this instant a rash 
youth in regimentals struck or rather tapped my 
cheek. I pitied the boy, asking him if he dared to 
do this in the presence of his General ; when the 
Baron ordered the officer of our guard to lead us ofT. 

In the beginning of December, the ruling party 
having nothing longer to fear, resolved to set us at 
liberty, after we should have indemnified the State 
for the losses incurred by the public during our usur- 
pation, as it was termed, of the public administra- 
tion, which sum was calculated at 45,000 florins. 

It was about this time that Mr. van Loon, an 
eminent civilian and partisan of the Stadtholder, 
proposed to visit us, which was accepted. The pre- 
text was the necessity to arrange some points for 
our enlargement. We invited him to stay to sup- 
per, which he did. He appeared careless, only in- 
tended to dispel the gloom of our situation, and 
cheer up our spirits. The glass went round briskly, 
when, deeming it now his proper moment, he in- 
quired about some publications which had given, at 

' Probably referring to a description of the Princess of Orange in 
the Catalogue Raisonn^, in which she was likened to Brunhilda and 
Tullia, seeking power at all cost. 


a certain time, great offence, but which now had be- 
come matters of indifference ; and we, who knew 
everything, could not be ignorant in what corner 
these were fabricated, and perhaps stood in some 
relationship to them. I told him bluntly what share 
I had in some, and which of these I claimed ex- 
clusively ; then he pointed archly at one or two 
treatises in the Post of the Lower Rhine. " I have no 
share at all in these, sir! and of this I undertake to 
convince you. Had I written these, I should have 
used less management ; I should have given a few 
proofs, strong as Holy Writ, in my possession, from 
the archives of the county of Culemborg, which 
you must know exist, and of which you cannot 
doubt my knowledge, when I shall have mentioned 
to you their contents." He was fully satisfied ; he 
now regretted that affairs had been pushed so far on 
both sides ; that the intercourse between good men 
of both parties had been so far interrupted ; that no 
reconciliation had become practicable ; yet he had 
hope, there was some possible now. " My plan, 
sir, is unalterably fixed ; if I am restored to liberty, 
as I ought to be, I leave instantaneously this devoted 
country, and leave it for ever." He hoped not ; I 
might yet be serviceable to my country; he dared to 
say I could if I would, and he offered himself sin- 
cerely to effect it. I did not question his sincerity 
but my resolution could not be shaken. 

A few days later my Lord Athlone ' wrote a letter 

' Jonkheer Frederik Christian Rynhard, Baron van Rheede en 
Agrim, Grave van Athlone, Vryheer van Amerongen, Head Officer of 
the city of Utrecht, 17S2. 


to Mrs. van der Kemp that we should ere long be set 
at liberty. She might come and see me. She ar- 
rived with her two children and one servant, who 
was peculiarly attached to our family, and visited 
me in my confinement. The next day was ap- 
pointed for our discharge. My Lord Athlone en- 
tered our room towards evening, and informed us, 
that he was ordered by the States General of the 
Province of Utrecht, to set us free, as he now had 
the gratification to do. He conducted us down the 
staircase to the coach, bid us a courteous farewell, 
and said he hoped I might meet success and prosper 
in another country, as he heard that I was resolved 
to leave my own. At the house of my friend de Nys, 
who had generously defrayed all the expenses during 
our captivity, and paid our heavy ransom,' a numer- 
ous company of our acquaintances and friends were 
convened. I made all speed to dress me for my jour- 
ney, entered the parlour, partook of a few refresh- 
ments, embraced my wife, my children, my friends, 
bid them all a heart-rending, last farewell and sprang 
on a chariot with my friend Major de Wys, who had 
served under me in Wyk, and visited me in 1790 
on the North River, to be witness of my lot, and 
inform my friends of my situation. We were guided 
by Mr. Sylvius, a zealous Orange man, but a man of 
honour and sterling worth, who promised your mother 
that he would see me safe in Brabant, and this he 
actually did. 

' Forty-five thousand gulden each. Van der Kemp was sentenced 
to leave immediately the State and Province of Utrecht, never to 
return. See N. Nederl Jaarb, I'jS'j. 


I left Utrecht on the 19th day of December, 1787 
at eight o'clock in the evening, and arrived on the 
2ist at Antwerp. We had slept that night at Hoog- 
straeten, from whence Mr. Sylvius returned to Hol- 
land ; your dear mother with you and your sister 
having gone to her residence at Leyden. 

I directly informed his Excellency John Adams of 
my arrival in Antwerp.' He was then Ambassador 
[Minister of the United States] at the Court of St. 
James. He congratulated me instantaneously upon 

' " Antwerp, Dec. 29, 1787. 

" Last year my wife could not bring herself to resolve to seek an 
asylum in the new world, and my wish to satisfy her desires made me 
yield. Now fate is changed, my unhappy country is in fetters, the 
best have suffered most, and I myself was a prisoner of state for 24 
weeks, released Dec. 9 after having namptise i\s,ooo fl. 

" The plan was to take me to Louvestein, so soon as I should have 
returned to Holland, and by the counsel of my friend John Luzac, I 
left the territory of the Republic, having received from my congrega- 
tion at Leyden a most honourable acceptance of my resignation. 

" Having lost 2000 florins per annum, we are forced to a de- 
cision which I should have made long ago. America or England 
are the only countries where I can live. America, the object of my 
most ardent desires, will be our goal if we can live frugally in the 
country, and if your Excellency will deign to honour me with letters. 
Mr. [Capellen] van der Marsch now at Brussels, Mr. John Luzac at 
Leyden can tell you that I am no less worthy of this favour than be- 
fore, and that the necessity of surrendering a city garrisoned by one 
hundred and twenty Bourgeois to fifteen hundred soldiers with a train 
of artillery has not stained my character. If out of the ruins of my for- 
tune I can succeed in supporting my family near Albany or in the 
State of New York, it will be the fulfilment of all my wishes. I ex- 
pect my wife with our two children and a servant, so soon as she shall 
have sold my effects, and I hope to sail for America in March next." 
— V. d. K. to Adams. From the original French MS. letter. 


the unexpected event, and favoured me with a num- 
ber of introductory letters to the first characters in 

As soon as I was a little recovered from fatigue, and 
my mind again at ease, I wrote to your mother, if it 
remained her firm purpose to share my fate, to sell all 
our property in Leyden — house, library, collection of 
statues, busts, medals, and superfluous furniture — 
and convey the remainder to Amsterdam to the care 
of Messrs. Wilhelm and John Willink, and then start 
for Antwerp. 

It was not an easy task to make a selection from a 
pretty large library, of the little I intended to save, 
but I succeeded once more far better than I could 
have expected. All that related to divinity, ancient 
and modern history, antiquities and laws of my 
ci-devant country was sacrificed, a few volumes ex- 
cepted, with a sufficient supply of French, English, 
Italian, and German authors, and a few chosen class- 
ics. It was indeed, my dear John, a pretty difficult 
task without a catalogue, and yet it was performed. 

In the beginning of March, 1788, your mother left 
Leyden with you and your sister for Antwerp.' An 
old friend, Abr. Leye conducted her thither ; that 
faithful girl, who could not obtain leave from her 
aged parents to follow us to America, accompanied 

' My grandfather does not mention that when my grandmother 
joined him in 1788 with her two children her passport was made out 
under her maiden name of Vos. My dear father even at that early age 
was remarkable for his veracity, and his mother with some difficulty 
prevented him from announcing his real name to the officer who ex- 
amined the passport. [Mrs. Bernard Henry.] 


her, to see me once more, and bid me a last adieu. 
She returned with our friend Leye. It was painful, 
painful in the extreme for both, that I was compelled 
to leave Europe without a worthy and loving moth- 
er's blessing, but it was unavoidable/ 

Having rested a few days at Antwerp, and hired a 
carriage to convey us to Havre de Grace, we went to 
Brussels, where we were received with open arms by 
our friend the Baron van der Capellen of Marsch, 
who provided me with letters of recommendation to 
several distinguished characters on the Western Con- 
tinent from the Marquis de La Fayette ; while he 
assured me that Mr. Jefferson, then our Ambassador 
[Minister] in France, would send me others at New 

This was the same Baron Robert Jaspar 
van der Capellen of Gelderland who had stud- 
ied long years ago with his cousin Johan Derk 
at Utrecht. 

On leaving the University, after a short 
cavalry service, he entered the States of Gel- 
derland, where his course during the sixteen 
years of his membership seems to have been 
that upon which he determined in his student 
days. Liberal and Patriot, he early incurred 
the Stadtholder's displeasure like his cousin 

' Mrs. van der Kemp died on March 19, 1789, at Amsterdam, where 
she was living with her only daughter. 


of Overyssel ; like him, also, he accepted no 
Court favours. The plan of government which 
he deemed the best for Holland, he stated in 
a preface to the Memoirs of his ancestor Alex- 
ander van der Capellen, which he published in 
1778. For Americans the chief interest in his 
life is that he was the first Regent in the 
Seven Provinces who ventured to propose in 
his Assembly the recognition of the United 
States.^ This was on February 23, 1782. 

When the troubles came, he was forced with 
his family to leave his home in Gelderland, by 
the excesses committed there in the Orange 
cause, the frequent threats of pillage and 
massacre, and the attempt on his son at school 
in Arnheim. He first took refuge at Amster- 
dam, then in Brussels in 1 788, and thence he 
passed into France, Louis XVI. having prom- 
ised him protection. 

In August of that year the Court of Gelder- 
land sentenced him to the block for rebellion ; 
this was banishment. As a matter of duty 
he protested against this sentence, and de- 

^ Dip. Corres. Am. Rev., vol. iii., pp. 513, 562-3. 



, like iiim, also, lie < 
.i\ uuis. The plan of govern hk 
'11 ed the best for Holland, he sic^c v^. 
CO the Alemoirs of his ancestor Alex- 
ander van der Capellen, which he published in 
or Americans the chief interest in his 
s that he was the first Regent in the 
-- v- n Provinces who ventured to propose in 
his Assembly the recognition of the United 
States.^ This was on February 23, 1782. 

forced with 


oj Mar sen. 

C^W"^^^' ^M^- Nqw,i^n,possessi()nef Mrs. W^. E, 
Ford, of Utica, Neiv York. 

refuge at Amster- 

d. \ in Brussels in 1788, and thence he 

p; ^^ Louis XVI. having prom- 

isea : on. 

In ':hat year tl r.-.i,i«,-, 

land itn to the _.. : , 

thio 'r-nt. ^er of duty 

he protf^ and de- 

: t'. 513. 562-3. 


fended the Patriot's "great cause" in his Me- 
moirs, pubhshed both in Dutch and French/ 
Little can be found in detail of his life. He 
took no part in the French Revolution, for he 
deplored its excesses, and was an enemy of 
anarchy as of despotism. What remained of 
his immense fortune he shared with his com- 
panions in exile. He was born at Zutphen, 
April 30, 1743, and died in the environs of 
Paris — perhaps at Seve, where his work is 
dated — about 1798. His descendants are liv- 
ing to-day in the Netherlands. 

Van der Kemp had taken the only course 
open to him ; he, too, had only to fiee, he was 
nowhere safe. No one had a orood word for 
him save the Utrecht militia. Lampooned, 
slandered as a preacher of regicide, for years 
he was under a ban, and even so late as 181 7 
those in Holland who remembered him, and 
held him in high esteem as a defender of 
religious and political freedom and a champion 
of oppressed virtue, were, strange to say, afraid 
to let their names be known." 

' At Dunkirk and Paris, 1791. "^ Hartog. 


Many people of all classes now fled the 
Seven Provinces ; the number is even estimated 
at forty thousand.^ 

" To make up for the deplorable failure of her 
policy, France gave important aid to the most 
unfortunate victims," while the hope of bring- 
ing back to their old allegiance the exiles of 
the Edict of Nantes is said to have influenced 
the Edict of November, 1787, restoring Fdiat 
civil to Protestants. It was contemplated to 
form new regiments for the employment of 
the refugee Dutch ofificers and soldiers ; in 
1788 one hundred and forty officers were ad- 
mitted to the French service.^ 

In 1795 many of these refugees returned, 
under the tricolore, across the dykes and canals 
frozen by " the French winter," and with their 
French generals were welcomed by the rem- 
nants of the old Patriot party, and by those 
who, finding the yoke of the House of Orange 
too heavy to bear, were dazzled by " Liberty, 
Equality, and Fraternity." 

' See Davies, vol. iii., p. 545. 
'^ See DeWitt, pp. 297-S. 


The Princess of Orangre with her daug-hter 
left the country, and the Stadtholder a few 
hours later with his sons embarked in a fishing 
smack for England never to return. 


HERE [in Brussels] a crowd of exiled Patriots 
surrounded us, and regretted our final de- 
parture. Our stay was but short, our feelings vari- 
ous and painful ; but the die was cast ; we took then 
our last farewell from respected, from beloved asso- 
ciates in our toils, and from our cordial friends — 
even the remembrance is painful. The generous 
Jacob Hoofman, one of the zealous patrons of my 
youth, sent me on the morning of our departure one 
thousand guilders, to render the journey across the 
Atlantic as comfortable as possible to your excellent 
mother, whose courage he admired, and whose many 
sacrifices had made a deep impression on his breast. 
We met with no accident or adventure worth men- 
tioning, and arrived in safety at Havre de Grace 
at the English hotel of a Mr. White. Here we met 
our countryman Messchert on his return from Russia, 
Mr. Sparman, and Mr. Wadstrom, who recommended 
me to the Rev. Mr. Collins at Philadelphia and the 
Rev. Laur. Girelius ' at Wilmington. The first was 

' Rector of Holy Trinity— Old Swedes'— Church, Wilmington, 


a celebrated traveller ; the second a man of talents, 
who presented me with a manuscript on the origin of 

At Havre we had intended to take our passage 
in the packet to New York, but unfortunately, it 
wanted repair ; it must be coppered anew, and not 
start this month. I resolved then to go to England, 
and take from there our passage to the great West- 
ern continent, when, unexpectedly, an American 
frigate. Captain Benjamin Weeks, taking in ballast, 
was recommended to us by our landlord and the 
house of Ruellan & Co. We left Havre the 25th of 
March, discovered land on the 4th of May,' and ar- 
rived in a pilot boat at five o'clock in the afternoon 
in New York Harbour. Young Curtenius (late 
Major-General) accosted us, and conducted us to 
the boarding house of Mr. Francis in Hanover 

It is but duty, to renew the recollection, — and you 
my dear John, are interested in it — of having re- 
ceived numberless tender and kind attentions of 
Captain Weeks.'' It is but duty to acknowledge 
that we owe many great obligations to that worthy 
man. He indeed was able to command ; always 
cool ; joining prudence with firmness ; pious without 

' His birthday. He " never wished to return," 

' " He commanded a privateer in the American War, and after 
the peace was constantly employed by Messrs. John Ross and Co. 
of Philadelphia, which was his home. We crossed the Atlantic 
with him in the Frigate L Henriette." — v. d. K. to Adams, MS. 


ostentation ; seemingly rigid in his discipline and 
tuition of four apprentices, but always moderating 
his sternness with complacency and heart-winning 
manners. No better order could be kept in a vessel 
than that which was maintained with regard to every 
individual on that of Captain Weeks' ; never could a 
vessel be better manned with expert sailors, or have 
a more intelligent and prudent master, whose court- 
esy towards us exceeded our most sanguine wishes. 
He had hired, above his complement, a Low Dutch 
cabin boy from Lubeck, to please your dear mother, 
who understood not a word of English besides yes 
and no. He dismissed us with our baggage without 
payment, convincing us that this was our interest, as 
I had possessed only French gold coin, of which 
I had made him a tender. He would draw on me 
on a house in New York, as I might propose — Con- 
stable and Ruckers, or Le Roy — and mention to 
his employers on his arrival at Philadelphia, his 
charge for the two children, viz. half price. He did 
so. A few days after our arrival in New York, I 
received from him a letter, dated Philadelphia, with 
a draft for the sum of our passage ; his employers, 
Messrs. Ross, had ordered that no charge should be 
made for you or your sister, requesting only a visit 
if I came to Philadelphia. 

I had not been many weeks in New York before I 
received letters from Europe, and with these several 
of introduction from Mr. Jefferson ; one offering me 
— through my honoured and revered Master, Prof. 
Oosterbaen, in the name of Prince Potemkin, to 


whom I had been made known by the Russian Am- 
bassador [to the Netherlands] GalHtzin — the super- 
intendence of a large colony of Dantzic Baptists in 
the vicinity of Kherson, in the Crimea. But I, who 
could not brook to stoop to my equals — except by 
voluntary condescension, except to the fair ones — 
could not be induced to put my shoulders under the 
iron yoke of a despot, how well soever that yoke was 
gilded and adorned. 

I delivered my letters of introduction to the 
French Ambassador, the Count Moustier, intro- 
duced to him by Colonel A. Hamilton ; so I did 
to General Knox, Governour Clinton, and Melanch- 
thon Smith, and met with every kind of civility and 
hospitable reception. It seemed as a strife among 
many, who should do the most ; never can I repay 
it, but never, I am confident, can it be obliterated in 
my breast. No relatives, no parents could do more 
than Mr. and Mrs. Clinton ; the venerable Mrs. Tap- 
pan welcomed Mrs. van der Kemp as a daughter. 
Both ladies and also Mrs. Hamilton, conversed with 
your mother in Dutch. This was unexpected, and 
enhanced yet farther the high value of their numer- 
ous favours. 

Had we possessed indeed the first rank and worth, 
we could not have desired a more cordial, a more 
distinguished reception, than we were honoured with 
day after day by the families of CHnton, Knox, and 
others. I sent my other letters to Colonel Jeremiah 
Wadsworth, General W. Livingstone, Benjamin 
Franklin, and General Washington, from whom I 


received, ere long, a courteous invitation' to visit 
Mount Vernon. Thitiier I went. 

I stopped at Elizabethtown, visited Governor 
Livingston, with whom I spent a few days in the 
most agreeable manner. From his seat I pursued 
my journey to Philadelphia, where I met the same 
hospitable reception from a mercantile house from 
Antwerp, from Benjamin Franklin, and, which should 
make me blush could I pass it by in silence, from 
the family of Captain Weeks, he being again on a 
voyage. I acquitted myself in paying a visit to 
Messrs. Ross, and so I proceeded to Baltimore, to 

' Mount Vernon, May 28th 1788. 

The letter which you did me the favor to address to me on the 15th 
of this inst. from New York has been duly received, and I take the 
speediest occasion to welcome your arrival on the American shore. 

I had always hoped that this land might become a safe & agreeable 
asylum to the virtuous & persecuted part of Mankind, to whatever 
nation they might belong ; but I shall be the more particularly happy, 
if this Country can be, by any means useful tothe Patriots of Holland, 
with whose situation I am peculiarly touched, and of whose public 
virtue I entertain a great opinion. 

You may rest assured Sir, of my best & most friendly sentiments of 
your suffering compatriots, and that, while I deplore the calamities to 
which many of the most worthy members of your Community have 
been reduced by the late foreign interposition in the interior affairs 
of the United Netherlands : I shall flatter myself that many of them 
will be able with the wrecks of their fortunes, which may have 
escaped the extensive devastation, to settle themselves, in comfort, 
freedom, and ease in some corner of the vast regions of America. — 
The spirit of the Religions, and the genius of the political Institu- 
tions of this Country must be an inducement. Under a good gov- 
ernment (which I have no doubt we shall establish) this Country 
certainly promises greater advantages, than almost any other, to per- 


the country seat of my old Dutch friend, Adr. 
Valck,' then Consul of the United Provinces, and 
arrived at last at Mount Vernon, where simplicity, 
order, unadorned grandeur, and dignity, had taken 
up their abode. That great man approved, as well 
as Clinton, my plan for an agricultural life, and made 
me a tender of his services ; although in his opinion 

sons of moderate property, who are determined to be sober, industri- 
ous, & virtuous members of Society. And it must not be concealed 
that a knowledge that these are the general characteristics of your 
compatriots would be a principal reason to consider their advent as a 
valuable acquisition to our infant settlement. If you should meet 
with as favorable circumstances, as I hope will attend your first 
operations ; I think it probable that your coming will be the harbin- 
ger for many more to adventure across the Atlantic. 

In the meantime, give me leave to request that I may have the 
pleasure to see you at my house whensoever it can be convenient to 
you, and to offer whatsoever services it may ever be in my power to 
afford yourself, as well as to the other Patriots & friends to the 
Rights of Mankind of the Dutch Nation. 

I am — with sentiments of great 

Esteem & respect 
Your most obedt. & very 

Hble. Servant 
[Signed] George Washington. 

Mr. Fr. Adr. Vanderkemp. 

From copy. — Penn^. Hist. Soc. See also Sparks, Writings of 
Washington, vol. ix., pp. 368-9. 

' Adrian Valck. " One of our best patriots with whom I have long 
had an intimate correspondence and friendship, a merchant of integ- 
rity and ability, a native of Overyssel. He goes to form a business 
establishment in America." — Van der Capellen. Brieven, p. 568. 

Recommended to Adams (Oct., 1780) as worthy of all confidence, 
and zealous for the good cause. Adams's Life and Letters, vol. vii., 
p. 317. 


I should make a more desirable choice in the State 
of New York, among the posterity of Dutchmen. 

There seemed to me, to skulk somewhat of a 
repulsive coldness, not congenial with my mind, un- 
der a courteous demeanour ; and I was infinitely bet- 
ter pleased by the unassuming, modest gentleness of 
the lady, than with the conscious superiority of her 
consort. There was a chosen society. Colonel Hum- 
phrey was there. I was charmed with his manners, 
his conversation ; he knew how to please, he knew 
how to captivate, when he deemed it worth while. 

After my return to New York, I made a tour with 
your mother and you, leaving Bartha behind, to 
Esopus to see the country ; from there we went to 
Albany, Schenectady, Johnstown, Caughnawaga, so 
far as Palatine Town at Major Philip Schuyler's. I 
purchased at Esopus. 

Van der Kemp was naturalised, together with 
his wife and children, February 26, 1 789, and 
bought in the following August a country-place 
at Esopus, " in the manor of Vauxhall " (Fox- 
hall), Ulster County, for £\\oo} In Kings- 

' The Ulster County real estate records show that he bought prop- 
erty from the executors of Sylvester Salisbury, and that on May 31, 
1794, he sold the same. Other searches confirm the statement of an 
old inhabitant, Dr. Jesse Mayer, that while living in Kingston the 
family occupied the house and farm north-west of the Saugerties road, 
purchased later by Christopher L. Kiersted. The house was of blue 
limestone one and one-half stories high, and was pulled down in 1862. 
[From letter of the late General George H. Sharpe to the editor, 
Kingston, 1889.] 


ton his wife's kinsfolk, the Beeckmans, had long 
been settled, and here with their young child- 
ren Mr. and Mrs. van der Kemp lived for five 
years, "greatly enjoying the beautiful North 
River, the delightful mansions of its wealthy 
families, and his own well-improved country- 

During my first year in America I corresponded 
with Peter Vreede, late of Dutch Directory, then at 
Lier in Brabant at time of first Brabant Revolution. 
The government interrupted all suspicious letters, 
mine shared that fate, after some months Vreede 
went to the Burgomaster, said there were letters for 
him, as he had long expected them. — The Burgo- 
master confessed, but it was only suspicious letters 
written in a mysterious way and dated from 
Esopus, which alone denoted that other things 
were said and others understood. " Deliver me 
those letters from my friend ! Good God ! Burgo- 
master! Esopus is a village three thousand miles 
away in America, and my friend not even thinks of 
your miserable Revolution."' 

In 1790 he seems to have made a trip to 
the western branch of the Delaware, and in 
1792 he made a journey from Kingston to 

' MS. letter to Adams, Aug. 3, 1808. 


Oswego, which he described in a series of 
delightful letters.^ 

Van der Kemp had hoped to recover at 
least part of the forty-five thousand florins 
exacted at his enlargement by the States of 
Utrecht, as security for so-called possible dam- 
age from his action. He even thought the 
United States Government might aid him, but 
his request for its intercession could not be 

The autobiography continues : 

After six years my small funds having greatly suf- 
fered by apprenticeship in agriculture, by my im- 
provements, many unavoidable, many for which this 
plea could not be made, and by the unhappy pre- 
judice of many that we possessed a vast fortune, 
because we were treated with respect by families of 
distinction, because we made no debts, because our 
furniture had a more costly appearance, I left it 
not without regret, for Oneida Lake. 

Accordingly van der Kemp's record in the 

' See Centeimial Address, Seymour, Utica, 1877. 

* " By the treachery of one who called himself my friend I was de- 
prived of a great part of those possessions on which I depended in 
crossing the Atlantic." — MS. letter to Adams, Aug. 3, 1793. By 
May, 1794, the hope that these European losses might be partly re- 
paired was gone. 


old vellum book sa^^s : "In 1794 I and my 
family moved to the West to Lake Oneida 
where I settled and began to cultivate the land 
in the hope of leaving thereby to my children 
if my labours were blessed, an independent 
estate." The year before, the anonymous 
Castorland journalist had met "Mr. van der 
Kemp there, . . . looking for stone to 
build a stone house ; he speaks French a little, 
greeted us, and was very kind." 



ELKANAH WATSON in 1791 describes 
Oneida Lake as " extremely turbulent 
and dangerous, a small breeze producing a 
short, bobbing sea in consequence of its shoal 
waters," so that " the bateauxmen commonly 
hug the north shore as safest as well as more 
direct. . . ." He saw " two larg-e bears walk- 
ing along the shore in majestic confidence," 
while on its outlet, the Onondaga River, he 
passed " Indians returning from fishing ac- 
companied by all their families, children, dogs, 
cats, fowls, etc.," in birch canoes, which "sail 
like ducks upon the water, and some of them 
are whimsically painted." 

On another journey thither, in 1788, Watson 
had made his way westward to Whitesboro from 
old Fort Schuyler, his horse " at every step sink- 
ing deep in mud." Nor does he blush to record 


his fear, when, alone In the woods, soon after 
leaving the battle-ground of Oriskany, he met 
a band of Indians, drunk, frantic, almost 
naked, whooping, yelling, and dancing. At 
Fort Stanwix, a treaty was going on "to pro- 
cure a cession from the Indians of territory 
lying west of Fort Stanwix to the great 
lakes." The French ambassador. Count 
Moustier, and his sister, the Marchioness de 
Biron [Brehan] were " encamped within the 
fort under a marquee formerly used by Lord 
Cornwallis. This enterprising and courageous 
lady had exposed herself to the greatest fa- 
tigues and privations to gratify her unbounded 
curiosity, by coming all the way from the city 
of New York to witness this great and unusual 
assemblage of savage tribes." Yet greater 
than the couraQ^e of an eccentric traveller was 
that of Reinira van der Kemp, who from the 
delightful life of Holland, her family in Ny- 
megen, her house in Leyden, that " antique 
Athens of the North," came six years later to 
make a home for her husband in this howling 
wilderness. "Mrs. van der Kemp is great 


minded enough to dare encounter this new 
and difficult struggle. I have no fears for 
Peace, or would not sacrifice an excellent wo- 
man who has already suffered too much, on 
the Frontier. A beautiful situation, fertile 
soil, three children, and a selected library — my 
principal comfort which I do not expect to 
have to sell — will be our amusements. We 
shall try to reap all possible advantages and 
spread as much happiness as our narrow circle 
will allow. We have little left but health, 
contentment, and satiety of the more noisy 
scenes of life." ^ But accustomed as both were 
to every ease, adornment, and refinement 
of living, the burden laid upon them at this 
time of meeting the conditions of American 
frontier life, with but a slender and fast-ebbing 
purse for themselves and their three young 
children, ^ must have weighed most heavily 

^ MS. letter to Adams, May 26, 1794. 

^ Peter, the youngest, born at Kingston in October, 1789, and 
Cuneira Engelbartha, their only daughter, born in Leyden, February 
17, 1785, both died unmarried ; John Jacob, the eldest, was born 
at Leyden, April 22, 1783. He married in Philadelphia: first, Frances 
Taylor; second, Eliza Hepburn, by whom he had three children: 
Pauline Elizabeth, Bertha Frances, and John Jacob. 


upon Mrs. van der Kemp, then already in her 
forty-seventh year. She bore it with honour 
to her race. 

Reinira Engelberta Johanna Vos, daughter 
of Jacob Vos and his wife, Cuneira Beeckman, 
was born December i6, 1746. Her father 
was " old Burgomaster " of Nymegen, and 
many of her kinsfolk were well known not 
only in the church, but in civic affairs and in 
the army. The most famous of her ancestors 
was the well-known scholar Smetius,^ whose 
granddaughter Mechteld married Reynier 
Beeckman, connected with the distinguished 
branch of that family in America, and was 
the grandmother of Reinira, who on May 20, 
1782, married Francis Adrian van der Kemp. 

No letters of hers exist, and she is but a 
shadowy figure, though there remain many 
of her beautiful personal belongings, and fine 
portraits of her family that show her degree. 
In her husband's political troubles in Holland, 

'Johannes Smetius, or Smith, in his later life became pastor of 
the Reformed Church at Nymegen. Versed in classics and Oriental 
languages, he was an oracle even to foreign scholars in his know- 
ledge of Roman antiquities, an dhis unequalled collections were vis- 
ited by hundreds of travellers. He died, 1651. 


she Stood gallantly by him, none the less so in 
his long course against the steady head winds 
of later life in America. Much devolved upon 
the mistress of a household under even the 
easiest circumstances a century ago in the old 
States ; and at such a place as Kempwyk a 
woman's task was a much heavier one. Be- 
sides the care of the health of the family, and 
the responsibility of the children, only by her 
supervision might be had the full storeroom, 
the spotless house, the clear wick, the bright 
hearth, and the ever-ready welcome for a 
friend, or a friend's friend, arriving unexpect- 
edly over miles of bad frontier roads. Under 
her eye was often a "spinning woman," and 
sometimes even a loom. In days when every- 
thing had to be done by hand, or not at all, 
this personal care meant such economy as lies 
seldom within a woman's power to-day ; it was 
universally practised, and no one was probably 
more equal to it than this Holland-bred lady. 
At hours when all was in train, often a book 
read aloud by one of the family best lightened 
the monotony of her tireless needle, unless it 


were broken by the joyful arrival of visitors, 
or by the post-rider with Cottranten, and letters 
like the following ^ : 

31 Ap., 1795. 

Dear S'^ : 

About an hour ago I had the pleasure of Receiv- 
ing your Pleasing favour, many things have conspired 
to prevent the Pleasure of writing to my absent 
friend — among these are want of health, lack of 
opportunity and a most dreadful disease of the mind 
called Procrastination. 

We are all here in Joy. The successes of the 
French are astonishing. History presents nothing 
like it. Holland is now completely emancipated. 
The Tiranical Stadholder is fled with all his adher- 
ents and perfect Liberty is established, properly 
sacred to the proprietors, not the least cause for 
complaint. They talk of recalling there Virtuous 
Banished Patriots, are not you, Sf of that descrip- 
tion ? Who knows but yr. affairs may have a much 
Brighter aspect in future, and merit like yours not to 
be shut up on the Oneida Banks, and you and y." 
lady shine in your Respective Circles as in past 
times. ... I thank you S' for your good opin- 
ion of my son Edward's Election, if Virtuous prin- 
ciples joined to a clear head will recommend him to 
his fellow citizens confidence, he will assuredly have 
it. I am on the wing for Clermont, sick of the Town 

' Miss Julia Livingston Delafield has kindly allowed this letter to 
be printed. 


and its foolish ostentation by displaying food for 
vanity, and on the part of some Individuals not able 
to support the farce long. Sick of speculations, and 
an unbounded avarice which is insatiable and only fed 
by repeated accumulations, what pleasure can a city 
yield to one who detests such hateful passions, and 
with all their wealth they are strangers to true hap- 
piness. I am grateful to my Father who has saved 
his child from such attachments and given me a 
sweet retirement, where peace, harmony, and con- 
tent occupy the mind with gratitude to the Supreme 
good — please to present me affectionately to my 
cousin y." Lady and believe me to be S' with great 
esteem yours 


M. Livingston.' 
Mr. F. A. VAN DER Kemp. 

Oneida Lake 
County of Herkimer. 

Though Oneida Lake was then the thorough- 
fare to the West and Canada, and the course 
lay along this northern shore where the navi- 
gation was best, Liancourt says that, except 
this farm and Rotterdam, which has, beside a 
fine frame house that Scriba Is building, only 

' Margaret Beeckman, one of the most distinguished women of her 
day, wife of Judge Robert R. Livingston, and mother of Chancellor 
Livingston. Both at New York and Clermont, she showed great 
hospitality and kindpess to Mr. and Mrs. van der Kemp. 


a dozen wretched log houses — on ne voit pas 
2i7ie seule maison, ten seul defrichement sur ancun 
bord du lac, — des bois dt erne Is, des terres vzedi- 

Yet this had begun to be a promising point 
on the frontier, and van der Kemp, foreigner 
though he was, sympathised not with the mat- 
ter-of-fact views of Liancourt, but with the 
hopes of Scriba — George Scriba, a New York 
merchant who, in 1 790, had bought half a mil- 
lion of acres in this part of the State, a Patent 
still known by his name. Van der Kemp built 
here, on a point of land four or five miles east of 
Rotterdam, and about a mile beyond Bern- 
hard's Bay, a house described by the owner of 
the land in 1897 as having been sixty feet by 
twenty-two, and made of logs squared at the 
ends, with three rooms in front, the middle one 
a hall with a staircase. Separate from what 
was always understood in old times as "the 
house," doubtless there was also a wing for 
the negroes, of whom tradition says many were 

' See Liancourt, Voyage, etc. vol. ii., p. 261. 


The chicken house was sixteen feet square, 
with a peak for pigeons. The barn, resembling 
those in Holland, was sixty by twenty-six feet ; 
six feet high at the eaves and eighteen for 
main posts. 

This property he named Kempwyk. Here 
from the door in summer, across the road and 
the clearings, one might look over the shallow 
water of the wide blue lake, broken with beds 
of rushes, and watch perhaps a bear swimming 
across to the island of de Wattines, " the fa- 
vourite haunt of myriads of water fowl." 

The lovely line of the Canaseraga Hills, 
which van der Kemp recognised as an ancient 
shore of Lake Ontario, bounded this southern 
view. To the west, beyond the old British 
frontier post of Fort Brewerton, which kept 
the orate of the Osweo^o River and the "Ontario 
Ocean," was high land. To the east, where 
the royal blockhouse, by that time in ruins, 
had commanded Wood Creek, the waterway 
to the Mohawk and the Hudson, the land was 
low as it was to the north. 

The lake swarmed with fish, the deer came 


Up to the houses, the woods were full of par- 
tridges ; wild pigeons, wild ducks flew over 
spring and fall. Then, too, passed the wild 
geese, with a clamour which, like the laugh of 
the loon and the roar of the frogs, must have 
astonished the strangers had they not heard 
the same on the North River, while in the 
moonless spring evenings lights crept over the 
dark, still water, as the Indians speared salmon 
by pine-knot torches in the bows of their 

Rotterdam, at the Oneida Lake. 
The situation is delightful, land rich 
enough, my seat could have every improvement of 
taste were my finances equal. . . . 

I have been imposed upon by the men who con- 
tracted for clearing a great part of the land and who 

' DeWitt Clinton. 

The salmon then ascended the Oneida Creek as far as Stockbridge. 
In the Canaseraga Creek (one of the chief tributaries of the lake) 
they ran up above its junction with the Chittenango Creek, as far 
as the Chittenango Falls, the height of which, 140 feet, stopped their 
progress. At the foot of these falls an old inhabitant of Cazenovia, 
Mr. John Hatch, stated that he had often killed the fish, and that in 
Oneida Lake itself the seines were frequently too heavy with them 
to be drawn. Van der Kemp procured in great detail the rules for 
smoking salmon as practised in Holland, believing that with proper 
protection and curing, the fish "would become a gold mine for that 
part of our State." See MS. letter, 1817, to Clinton. Library of 
Columbia University. — Ed. 


have left it almost untouched — a considerable loss. 
. . . Mrs. van der Kemp is still at Mr. G. Boon's 
in Service's [Patent] with the family of Mr, Mappa, 
where she will stay till I have a convenient log house 
for temporary residence, and the out houses. She 
is resolved to make more sacrifices, and yet more if 
necessary, but to avoid this, I will sell my library, 
to repair part of my loss, and make my retirement 
more comfortable to my worthy consort used to a 
nobler manner of living. , . . Belles lettres, ancient 
and modern languages, first and magnificent editions 
neatly bound — I value the library between 400 and 
500;^ and shall prepare the catalogue this winter 
and, in spite of discouragements, . . . the study of 
government, agriculture, education of my children, 
make me happy. ' 

In September, 1794, he was appointed As- 
sistant Justice of the Peace,^ after which no 
letter breaks the silence until October 3, 1795. 

Uninterrupted labour has been required to make 
my family subsist more comfortably in the woods. 
Mrs. van der Kemp with her children has had this 
season a severe illness by which my own health is 
impaired — I wish to establish if possible some order 
and decency in the court where ignorance and 
stupidity prevail, and I have had labour, the unre- 
lented endeavours to establish and organize a Society 

' MS. letter to Adams, 28 Aug., 1794. 
" He declined the reappointmeot in 1798. 


of Agriculture and Natural History in which I suc- 
ceeded for a part. My circumstances forbid me 
farther intercourse after its organization. 

In 1795, van der Kemp had called a meeting 
at Whitesboro, to be held at Colonel White's 
tavern, on the 7th of April, for the purpose of 
forming an Agricultural Society for the West- 
ern District of New York. In his address he 
praises the cheerfulness and courage of the 
settlers, while he criticises their bad farming, 
bad drainage, indolence, and waste. He urges 
the formation of agricultural societies, new 
tools, new seeds, the use of natural history in 
all her extensions, meteorological observations, 
prizes for papers on these subjects, in Dutch, 
Latin, or French, and correspondence with 
the great foreign societies of London, Amster- 
dam, Gottingen, Berne, and Paris. 

After the hard work of ororanisino- and es- 

o o 

tablishing the society, trusting that " in time a 
more permanent and lofty edifice may rise on 
the foundation " he laid, he does no more, as his 
situation " requires a continued attendance, and 
the avoidance of the smallest extraordinary 


expenses." In his address one can see how he 
tries to make the best of it, as he describes the 
happiness of seeing the first cleared meadows, 
the first harvest, every new bird, reptile, 
plant, fossil, the anatomy of a single leaf. 
The farmer at the noontide rests under a grreat 
oak with his book — his Thompson or Milton — 
in his hand, or fishes in the stream. In the 
evening he instructs his family in duties of rural 
and domestic life, laws, and governments, or 
studies Sydney, Locke, Montesquieu, Adams, 
and blesses the country life and the lonely 
woods. One would say he ought to bless 
Jean Jacques also for giving him this point 
of view, so new then to mankind. 

Like Lafayette's of^cers, he " saw every- 
thing through Rousseau-tinted spectacles." 
Liancourt, however, said it was only avec les 
silcles futurs que V imagination doit vivre sielle 
veut sexercer dans ces nouvelles contrdes. But 
there was one a few years later whose imagina- 
tion revelled in the present. Whether Chateau- 
briand really journeyed through these lovely 
forest waters, and listened to the whippoorwill 


from his camp by the outlet of the Lake of the 
Onondagas, still as a mirror in the magnificent 
summer evening ; whether he really visited the 
old Iroquois chief, saw the French veteran 
teaching the Indians to dance after his violin, 
and heard the music of Paisiello and Cimarosa 
in the log huts of the pioneers, has not remained 
unquestioned. Yet his description ^ shows at 
least how the fancy of the Old World once 
kindled at the vision of the New. 

But before any traveller could have gone 
so far as to be startled at nio^ht in the forest 
by the distant thunder of Niagara, he left 
behind him the friends of the Dutch exiles on 
Oneida Lake, and we must turn Eastward to 
find them. 

In their immediate vicinity, at New Rotter- 
dam, lived George Scriba,' a much valued 
friend, and at Bernhard's Bay, near Kempwyk, 

' See M^tnoires D' Outre Tonibe, vol. ii., p. 211 et seq. 

'In 1794 George Scriba caused a settlement to be made on 
Oneida Lake, which he called New Rotterdam (now Constantia). 
In 1795 he began another town on the shore of Lake Ontario, which 
he called Vera Cruz, and where he put up mills, a store, and other 
buildings. An active trade on the Lake from that point began, and 
for some years the Northern Vera Cruz bid fair to become a formid- 
able rival of Oswego, and the most important commercial station on 


where now a solitary Lombardy poplar stands 
by the beach of the lake with an air of vielle 
soucke, was the house of Mr. Bernhard, who 
followed van der Kemp to this country, and 
who never left this " noble farm." 

Not an intimate, although living near them, 
was Angel de Ferrier of Niort, Department 
des Deux Sevres, France. He had been an 
officer in the King's Life Guards, and was only 
three and twenty when he escaped in 1 792 from 
Paris to Holland. There some members of 
the Holland Land Company suggested that 
he try his fortunes in America. Landing at 
New York, and coming first to Cazenovia, he 

the Lake. A few other settlements were made at other points in 
Oneida before 1800, principally under his auspices. One of his 
enterprises was a four-rod highway, twenty miles long, from Rotter- 
dam to Vera Cruz, at which latter place it was said that in 1S04 more 
merchandise was sold than at Oswego or Utica, and in the belief of 
many persons it was destined to command the trade of Canada and 
the West. At the time of the purchase his fortune was estimated at 
$1 , 500,000, which made him one of the richest men of his time, but later 
all was swallowed up in his efforts to promote the interest of the infant 
settlements, and he died at Constantia, Aug. 14, 1836, a poor man. 

He came to New York with his brother Frederick from Frankfort 
on the Main before the Revolution, and established a successful 
banking house in this city. He married ist. Sarah, daughter of 
James Dundas ; 2nd, her sister Eliza, widow of his partner, F. W. 
Starman. See A^f w York Evefiing Post, Nov. i, 1878. 


settled after his marriage at Wampsville, where 
he invested his patrimony in the " best land," 
owning before his death some three thousand 
acres. His return to France, where he went 
to receive his inheritance, was, it has been said, 
connected in some way with the pretensions of 
Eleazar Williams to be Louis XVI I. Williams 
was then living as a missionary among the 
Oneida Indians, near de Ferrier, and as much 
mystery has been thrown around his person- 
ality as around that of Louis Anathe MuUer, 
who some years later was lavishing money on 
his secluded home in the wild southern part 
of Madison County. The belief grew that 
he too was of the royal family of France, 
whither he went again after 1814.^ 

James Donatianus Le Ray de Chaumont, the 
son of Franklin's friend at the French Court, 
was established to the northward in Lewis 
County. He was a brother-in-law of M. 
Chassanis, who purchased of William Con- 
stable in Paris, 1792, 630,000 acres of land 

' See "The Mystery of the Muller Mansion," R. J. Hubbard, 
Transactions Oneida Historical Society, Utica, 1892-4. 


near the Black River in the northern part of 
New York, for an association later organised 
as La Co77ipagnie de Netu York, and known as 
" Castorland." ^ 

There had been other leaders of the Castor- 
land Colony near-by, among whom were des 
Jardins, a former chamberlain of Louis XVI., 
and Marc Isambart Brunei, also a French po- 
litical exile, later the engineer of the Thames 
Tunnel, while de Wattines still lingered,*^ much 
derogated, within sight of his island. At 
Whitesboro lived Jonas Piatt, and Peter Smith, 
later of Peterboro, also a friend of van der 
Kemp, who said he was " a man of talents, 
great worth, and strong mind." In the village 

' Le Ray later became the principal agent of the French proprietors, 
and bought many of their rights. He spent the best years of his life 
in promoting the settlement of his lands in Jefferson and Lewis 
counties. He became insolvent, and the management of affairs 
passed to his son, Vincent Le Ray. He went back to France in 1832, 
and visited America for the last time in 1836. He died December 
31, 1840, cBt. 80. See Hough's History of Lewis County, pp. 35 et 
seq., pp. 69, 70. 

^ On a farm given him by Mr. Scriba " at the intercession of my 
friend Mappa. Gerrit Boon, at my urgent entreaties, paid a hand- 
some sum for the remnants of his library, which afterwards Chastellux 
[Liancourt] published that I had, taking advantage of his distress, 
appropriated to myself." — MS. letter to Clinton, Columbia University 


of Utica were Steuben's old Aid, Colonel 
Walker, and the well-known members of the 
famous Oneida County bar, and later Henry 
Seymour. At Cazenovia, Colonel John Linck- 
laen was not only a compatriot but a "beloved 
friend," like members of other families con- 
nected with the Holland Land Company. But 
more nearly bound to the van der Kemp 
household than perhaps any others were Col- 
onel Mappa, his wife, and children ; who were 
living at the distance of a day's journey at 
Olden Barneveld, (later Trenton, now Barne- 
veld), in Oneida County. 

Yet at the best the loneliness was great. 
Brave though Mrs. van der Kemp was, her 
health failed, and this added trial finally made 
life at Kempwyk impossible. 

There once more [van der Kemp writes in the 
autobiography] duty compelled me to make my 
greatest sacrifice of all my prospects — of which I 
sometimes yet feel the sting — to the peace and 
comfort of your excellent mother, and conducted 
her, who had given up country and ease, and relat- 
ives and friends, to follow her consort to the West- 
ern hemisphere, to Oldenbarneveld, to enjoy there 


the society of our few friends, Gerrit Boon/ and 
Mr. and Mrs. Mappa, and there, I expect the end of 
our course. 

When Mrs. van der Kemp in 1794 had first 
visited Olden Barneveld, the Castorland jour- 
nalist says that the settlement had " a large 
clearing, a forge, saw mill, a fine two story 
frame house with all the conveniences of a city 
home, fine vegetable gardens, log houses, etc., 
all a great credit to Mr. Boon's industry" and 
that " Mrs. Mappa received me de son mieux; 

' Gerrit Boon of Rotterdam, came to America in 1790 with John 
Lincklaen, both under the direction of the Holland Land Company. 
He became Agent for its lands in Oneida County and arrived upon 
this purchase in 1793, the first settler. He named his village Olden 
Barneveld, lived there for some years, and was succeeded in his 
Agency by Colonel Adam Gerard Mappa. He returned to Rotter- 
dam, where his '' comptoir was under the forma of Van der Pot and 
Boon, one of the oldest and most reputable families of the city." 
Among the letters of introduction for Holland given by Mr. van der 
Kemp to Mr. A. H. Everett, of Boston, in 1815, was one to "my 
friend Boon at Rotterdam, who is delighted to receive an American 
under his roof. Though no literary man he is an enlightened mer- 
chant, he was here a number of years, and this our settlement and 
neighborhood has risen and been fostered by his care. He has a 
cultivated mind and a heart to endear him to all around." 

In 1833 he was left alone by the loss of his wife, who had no 
children ; he was then in feeble health ; the date of his death is 

The life-size portrait of Mr. Boon, in crayon on pink paper, by St. 
Memin, is in the possession of the Oneida Historical Society at Utica. 


Speaking French, as did all her family ; her 
husband, the ci-devant Dutch general of the 
Revolution, was exiled like all other leaders of 
the Republican party." Here van der Kemp, 
in I 797, once again and for the last time es- 
tablished his home. It was in a cottage which 
still stands, not far from the old Unitarian 
church. Here in his bed-chamber he placed 
the sword and pistols carried through the 
Dutch Revolution, and " the sword of the 
Baron de Haersolte," laid aside his books for 
moments of summer recreation and months of 
winter leisure, and again essayed his agricul- 
ture. Many of the families of their acquaint- 
ance in the neighbourhood, rough country 
though it was, lived in well-appointed houses, 
with not only every comfort, but much of the 
luxury of the time ; the exiles, now by repeated 
losses in narrow circumstances, redeemed their 
daily round and common task by s avoir fair e 
and savoir vivre, and were happy in the society 
of the friends whom they had come to join. 


THE name of Adam G. Mappa, a native 
of Delft, often appears in the Holland 
Land Company's deeds of property in Oneida 
County, and the house in the village of Tren- 
ton — now Barneveld — New York, built for 
him in 1810 as its agent, is still standing, a 
study of the Georgian period of architecture in 
this country.^ 

This quiet home saw the closing years of a 
life of vicissitude, among the few records of 
which the happiest are perhaps the earliest, a 
half-dozen letters tied in an old blue silk case, 
written in 1 786-1 787 to the woman who later 
became his wife, while both were still living in 
Holland. Even then they had their troubles, 

'See The Georgian Period, Part V., American Architect & Build 
ing News Co., 1900. 



ces beaicx jours oil Us ^taieiit si iiialheurcux, 
for though Anna Adriana Paspoort was twenty- 
seven, she lived in the Old World, and there 
in the eighteenth century a father's disapproval 
was a complete ban to a lover's pretensions. 

"A native of Holland, Mappa had at an 
early age entered the Dutch service, and gained 
marked distinction as a brave and enterprising 
officer during the brief opportunity afforded 
him before he retired." His letters are more 
full of expressions of affection than of the de- 
tails of his life and affairs such as we would 
like to know while he is marching with his 
regiment from post to post in the Netherlands, 
though once he tells us how, at one of the 
more agreeable posts, he goes "every week to 
a private party, where people talk to ladies 
young and old, play for money, take a cup 
of chocolate and come home at nine"; or he 
visits Madame van Asten, " a delightful wo- 
man of a certain age, wife of his friend, who 
waited fourteen years in defiance of her 
mother's opposition for the man she loved." 

He has his professional difficulties, which he 


recounts at leno-th ; he writes often of his re- 
ligious feeHngs, which, to do him justice, his 
later hfe— and so we may assume his earHer — 
did not beHe. His thouo^hts are with the wo- 
man he loves, and although it is hard for him 
to leave, " being Adjutant," he hopes to see her 
soon, "entering by the garden gate." He 
longs to be with her again in the petit salon, 
he ventures to send her a little present, he 
thinks they may in time " vanquish " her father, 
"by their prayers, their humility and constancy." 

With such an arsenal at their command, one 
cannot wonder that they prevailed. " On the 
nth of February, 1780," the family Bible rec- 
ord says, they were " married in the old church 
by Dominie P. Rietveld." Doubtless this was 
in Delft, where the Paspoorts lived. 

The next few years were happy enough to 
have no history. There is reason to suppose 
that Mappa left the army about the time of 
his marriage, and later perhaps engaged in the 
business of type-founding. When the political 
storms gathered, "his desires to substitute for 
the oligarchial constitution of his country a 


representative government which would secure 
to her the blessings of civil liberty, called out 
the energies of his character and distinguished 
him for his patriotism," Again he took up his 
sword, and so, in the same box with the letters 
and his commission, is an epaulet lined with 
green cloth, the fringe of the finest silver bul- 
lion, which suggests the next chapter in 
Mappa's story. "By 1 786-1 787 he had be- 
come one of the leaders of the Dutch Patriots, 
the commander of the armed citizens in the 
Province of Holland," and soon made his name 
a terror to the invaders. Daendels wrote to 
him at Delft the day after Wyk had fallen : 
" Amice ! come and command us ! all the 
Guelderland men will rejoice." ^ 

But by the autumn of 1787, "after keeping the 
Hague for several succeeding days in a state 
of alarm, with his small band of patriots alone, 
he was overwhelmed with numbers," oblio^ed 
to disband his men," and was banished with 
fourteen others for ever from Delft. 

' MS. note of Daendels. From copy in the editor's possession. 
■•* Amsterdam, I7<S7. The auxiliary regiment of Mappa appeared 
October gth, at four p.m. on the drilling-field, by the Utrecht Gate, 


By the authority of his repubHcan friends, 
he immediately repaired to the Court of Ver- 
sailles as commissioner to solicit her counte- 
nance and co-operation, already promised, for 
the Patriot cause/ At first he received en- 
couragement, but France was too much busied 
in those momentous affairs which preceded the 
Revolution to be depended upon. 

Foiled in this attempt, his country in pos- 
session of foreign invaders, although Louis 
XVI. is said to have given him a commission, 
he determined to embark with his family for 
America. Upon this Mrs. Mappa is said to 
have had the courage to go back, not without 
personal risk, to their old home from which 
her husband had been obliged to fiee at a 

where it was summoned, and was there disarmed. The weapons 
were brought to the city. The cannon also hauled from the battery 
and brought to the magazines. The officials visited the houses to de- 
mand of the auxiliaries their arms, powder, and lead, according to 
the order of October 9, 1787. — See N. Nederl. Jaarb. 

' My friend Mappa dined in Paris in 1787 at My. van den Yver's, 
the lady recommended a Pike folded in a damask napkin, comme 
parfaitement bien inortijie. 

" Apropos of the meaning in Pope of ' old fish at table, but young 
flesh, etc' (a Dutchman would call it old wine), I knew not that the 
English preferred old fish above fresh, I knew the French did so — 
^ jdine chair et vieux poisson.' " MS. letter to Adams. 


moment's notice, where she hurriedly arranged 
their affairs, and collected such personal pro- 
perty as she could, their ship mean while wait- 
ing till this might be accomplished. With the 
two years which they spent at the Chateau de 
Watte with Mr. Blok,^ near St. Omer, where 
hundreds of the Dutch Patriots took refuge, 
this would account for the time between July, 
1787, and December i, 1789, when Mappa 
arrived at New York with his family. 

His friend van der Kemp at once begs leave 
of Mr. Adams, then Vice-President, to intro- 
duce Mappa, " one of the eminent characters 
among the Patriots for political knowledge, 
undaunted bravery, sacrifices, and distinguished 
personal merit," though already Mappa some 
years before had met Mr. Adams at the Lyon 
d' or in Amsterdam, and asked his advice as to 
emicrratino- to America. 

o o 

' Bernardus Blok. Born at Macassar, 1755. After the failure of the 
Patriot movement, thinking himself not sufficiently secure in Brus- 
sels, he fixed his abode at the Chateau de Watte, below Cassel in 
France. In 1806 he was appointed Fiscal in Cura9oa ; in 1809 sec- 
retary of Daendels in Java ; in 1812 he returned to the Netherlands, 
and after the country regained independence he was named Member 
of the Court of First instance at Alkmaar. Died in office 29 July, 
1818. Beschrijving . . . Vervolg.^ vol. ii., p. 268. 


Again they met, when Mr. Adams invited 
him to his house, doubtless " Richmond Hill," 
near Greenwich, on Manhattan Island. Mappa, 
upon the advice of Jefferson, then United 
States Ambassador in Paris, where he had also 
met Franklin, had brought with him to America 
a complete " Letter Foundery," not alone for 
" the Western, but the Oriental languages at 
the value of at least about ;^3500 New York 
currency. For the moment," continues van 
der Kemp, there is, " so far as I know, not a 
single letter-foundery in America, and the 
printers must purchase them in England or 
Scotland," and he proposes that Congress shall 
tax foreign letter-types and encourage Mappa 
and a home industry.^ 

During the next few years, letters of Mrs. 
Mappa to her husband's sister in Holland, and 
advertisements in French and English in the 
New York papers, give a slight outline of their 

New York, August, 1790. 
We are well, through God's goodness and fairly 
well pleased here, we have very good prospects of 

' MS letter to Adams, January 7, 1790. 


success with the Letter-Gietery, we have a very good 
and cheerful house very suitable for our business, 
some good friends, and a contented and thankful 
heart since we enjoy so many blessings from Heaven 
above. I am sure my dear sister will rejoice with 
us, and thank God for and with us. I have no news 
that I can give you, since all here is strange to you, 
and I really know nothing, but only that the Con- 
gress of the States, which for five years was held 
here, has departed to the city of Philadelphia, and 
that some Kings or chiefs of the Creek Nation have 
spent some time here to conclude a treaty of peace 
and friendship with the United States. They are 
all savages, terrible to see, their natural colour black 
or inclining to be nearly black, they paint their 
faces with all sorts of colours, wear rings in their 
noses, and some have the border of the ear pierced 
and adorned with little tin plates. Moreover they 
deck themselves with feathers of all sorts and colours, 
and wear no breeches, so their backs are bare, and 
no agreeable sight. 

January, 1791. 

By God's providence we are all well, and all our 
affairs would go well had we better work people, and 
a better work-place, but we are obliged to move in 
May, and, if possible to find a good situation for our 
affairs outside the city, we shall go, for the pleasure 
of country life. 

From New York, September 20, 1791, she 
writes of her sad summer, and the death of 


her youngest child when eight weeks old. 
Mappa was working " early and late, with 
scarcely time to eat and drink," and must do 
much with " his unaccustomed hands " ; they 
hope in time to overcome all difficulties, but 
if not, and if they must always drudge, still 
they will be patient, and happier with their 
good name and good conscience than if they 
had abandoned honour and duty. 

Discouraged though they seemed to be, in 
1792 Mappa's name still stands in the New 
York Directory as a type-founder, at 22 Green- 
wich Street. But on February i, 1794, he 
advertises his type manufactory for sale, and 
purchasers are directed to " apply at Passaick 
and Second River three miles north from New 
Ark, the mansion house of Col. Cortlandt 
where subscriber now lives," and by the fol- 
lowing summer, as we have already seen, he 
had established himself and his family in 
Boon's Settlement, later Olden Barneveld, now 

Baron Steuben was already on his Patent 
near them. 


The sixteen thousand acres of land which New 
York had given him lay in Oneida County about 
twelve miles north of Old Fort Schuyler, the Utica 
of our day, and formed part of the township which 
still bears his name. It was a rough, stony tract, 
fitter for grazing than planting, with a high ridge 
running across it, from which, as his eye became 
familiar with the landscape, he could distinguish the 
highlands of seven different counties, and, gleaming 
over the tree tops on the farthest verge of the 
horizon, the bright waters of Oneida Lake. This 
was to be his home during the active months of the 
year. . . . Sixty acres were set apart, and cleared 
for the manor-house, which was to be a building 
suited to his rank and habits of life. Meanwhile he 
contented himself with a log-house, enlarged after a 
short time by the addition of a frame-house of two 
rooms. Here Mulligan ... as secretary was his 
constant inmate ; North ' or Walker or some other 
old companion would often come to stay a week or 
more. . . . He studied farming as he had studied 
the art of war. . . . And never, perhaps, even as 
he rode his war-horse down the line . . . did he 
feel a truer pleasure than when he guided Molly, his 
quiet little mare, through the stumpy and half worn 
paths of Steuben. In the evening chess or a book 

' William North, born in Maine, 1775. Served as officer through 
the War of Independence. Member of the New York Society of the 
Cincinnati, United States Senator from that State, Erie Canal 
Commissioner, Adjutant-General of the United States Army. Mar- 
ried Maria, daughter of Hon. James Duane. Died, New York City, 
Januaiy 3, 1836. He was Aid to Baron Steuben, as was Walker. 


filled up the time pleasantly. . . . And thus the 
last four years of his life glided smoothly away, with 
little in them to recall Frederick's camp, or the 
drawing-rooms at Hechingen,' but with something 
of a grateful variety, and much to awaken a placid 
interest. . . . During the day he rode through the 
fields, watched the improvements and gave direc- 
tions. In the evening he saw his friends and 

And when the chess-board and the books 
were laid by for the Gazette de Leyde and the 
last news of the French Revolution, one would 
have been elad to hear the discussions be- 
tween the old Aid of Frederick the Great, who 
never could believe in the Prussian reverses, 
and his neighbour Mappa, who was also turn- 
ing his sword into a pruning-hook, and who 
was ever one of his favourite guests. Indeed 
their new interests as well as their old ones 
were much the same, as was their society. 

When, in his turn. Baron Steuben announced 
a visit at Olden Barneveld, 
our Hollanders met him as he appeared at the 

' " He had been Grand Marshal at the Court of the Prince of 
Hohenzollern-Hechingen for ten years." — Greene's Gert?ian Element 
in the War of Independence, p. 23. 

^ Greene's German Element in the IVar of Independence, pp. 77 
et seq. 


edge of the forest, and escorted him in line to the 
house, where he was received at the front door by 
the ladies with all the courtesy and consideration 
which would have been shown him in the Old 

The sudden death of this " most o-enerous 
and affectionate" man, on November 28, 1794, 
left a sad gap in their little circle. 

The next year Mrs. Mappa wrote again to 
her husband's sister, in anticipation of the lat- 
ter's journey to America : 

Olden Barneveld, i July, 1795. 
We are all well and shall be heartily glad when 
we may embrace you all here in health. You must 
help my sister'^ as much as possible on the journey; 
you remember her fragile condition and have seen 
many proofs of her friendship for you. We are now 
at the house ' of our friend Boon, and do not yet know 
when we shall begin to build our own ; it is very 
likely that at your arrival we shall receive you in his 
house ; while he has so much friendship for us he 
will not deny us that, but there is always a great dif- 
ference if one is in one's own house ; let then the joy 
of meeting us not make you forget this ; for the 

' Centennial Address, Seymour, p. 17. 

"^ Burga Jacoba Paspoort, wife of G. H. C. Zahn, both of whom 
came from Holland to Olden Barneveld with Miss M. A. Mappa 
(" Xante Maritje "). 

'Moved across the road and now the Do uglass house. See Cent- 
ennial Address^ Seymour, p. 11. 


friendship of this gentleman is of too much impor- 
tance to us not to take all possible care to keep it. 
Above all, I hope that you will consult my sister, 
and take care that you do not lack for clothing and 
if you have it not, that you make something suitable 
for travelling by land to me ; for although we are in 
the woods, we are yet constantly with the fashion- 
able people of the country, and without being 
proud, it is always well to maintain one's position, 
and so, dear Mietje, I beg with all friendliness that 
you consult in all things my sister, who can advise 
you in the best way. 

All the news from here I have written in my sis- 
ter's letter, and I doubt not her readiness to impart 
it to you. My time is so occupied that I hope you 
will allow me to close with the hearty wish that we 
may embrace each other in health, and pass our 
remaining days in peace and unity. 


THE village of Olden Barneveld — later 
Trenton, now Barneveld — lies in a small 
valley at the confluence of the Steuben and 
Cincinnati Creeks. 

The drives through the surrounding hills, 
often along little amber streams that run over 
beds and ledges of the Trenton limestone, are 
delightful, and the freshness of the great 
North Woods fills the air. The summer clim- 
ate is fine and the autumn is beautiful ; the 
winters — as winters — are maofnificent, thougfh 
when the tardy spring arrived, long after the 
vernal equinox, it must have been an inde- 
scribable delight to see, through doors and win- 
dows standing open once more, the dark surface 
of the gardens and meadows rising from the 
"oceans of snow," like Mt. Ararat from the 



wastes of waters, lightened in places by the 
returning gold of the willows, and the blush of 
the red maple and the " killikinnick." 

Happy the man whose tender care 
A few paternal acres bound 

writes Mrs. Livingston to Mr. van der Kemp 
in July, 1797. 

It gave me great pleasure to hear that my 
cousin had again a good and pleasant home, and 
that your affairs are in a happy train to reward your 
diligence and perseverance ; how happy that you are 
far from your native country and Europe, where 
Bellona hath let loose the dogs of war! 

All in Barneveld to-day is but little changed, 
and on its shaded streets yet stand the Mappa 
house, the church, and a little dwelling close to 
a small tributary of the West Canada Creek, 
which washes in its pebbly course the edge of 
the meadow that slopes from the door to the 
sunny garden. This now became the home 
of van der Kemp. Here, occupied with his 
planting and tilling, with his library, — every 
book of which he could identify in the dark, — 
his wide correspondence, the visits of foreign 


friends and Americans warmly attached to the 
household, receiving as he wrote to Vreede 
" in this humble cottage sometimes the greatest 
of the land," he passed his last thirty years in 
a deep retirement which threw into extra- 
ordinary relief the stormy period of his earlier 

Little remains to indicate the course of those 
last years. The letters that came and went, 
"those fallen leaves that keep their green," 
are the sole source of information, and it is 
only in sentences scattered through them here 
and there that the thread of his life may 
henceforth be traced. 

The summers were devoted to his gardens, 
the inclement seasons, which set in early and 
lasted late, to his studies. In the winter of 
1 801, he wrote a paper upon the theories of 
Buffon and Jefferson, in 1802 another on 
the Achaean Republic, in 1803 still another 
upon the "Use of Copper among the Greeks," 
besides collecting "all possible information" 
on the north-western coast of America, and 
through European letters investigating the 


Arabian incursions from the seventh to the 
eleventh century into the north-eastern parts 
of Asia. To them he added his own favourite 
study, the Canon Law, a correspondence with 
a German mineralogist, and the preparation of 
lectures for the use of his children. 

In 1813 he published " The Outlines of the 
Moral and Physical Causes of the Revol- 
utionary Spirit in the Latter Part of the 
Eighteenth Century,"^ and in March, 181 1, 
he finished the literary sketches of Calvin 
and Servetus.^ 

He is a great man, a star of the first magnitude 
under a deep cloud. . . . You may well suppose 
that such a man has not always been able to under- 
stand our American politics. Nor have I. Had he 
been as great a master of our language as he was of 
his own, he would at this day have been one of the 
most conspicuous characters in the United States.' 

There was little for van der Kemp's pen 
to describe outside of the kingdom which was 
his mind. While his days may almost be said 

' In General Repository, Boston. 

2 MSB. now in the library of Harvard University. 

^ To Jefferson, Adams. Life and Letters, vol. x., pp. 22, 224. 


to have a tincture of the quaHty of Evelyn's, 
with his devout spirit, his love of gardening 
and of letter-writing, " tempting and provok- 
ing his friends with Latin and Greek," his 
interest in all questions of public concern, yet 
all real activity in affairs was denied him. In 
his solitary life much of his thought is of 
Holland ; he seems to hear a^ain the old music 
of his youth though on muted strings, and 
wonders if his friends think of him in the 
Western woods of America. Happily, yes. 
Cau in 1806 sent him sixty volumes of classics, 
and he thanks de Gyzelaer for his present of 
Virgil, Sallust, and Horace, " save Montaigne 
sent from France, the first stereotype " he has 
seen. He placed these guests — " used to a 
warmer climate — next the hearth to spare them 
the cold ; since their host has laid off his fur 
they too must learn to make shift." Many 
classics had also come from Luzac. 

Those ancients are delightful companions. Ovid 
took a seat in my easy chair and made latterly 
a place for Seneca, who pleases me better than for 
thirty years. ... I have read Manilius, then 
Phaedrus; the Nouvelle Hcloise after twenty years 


with new pleasure; then the Lady of the Lake three 
times without interruption. They belong to the 
course of physic which gave back the tone I thought 
to have lost for ever. 

So he writes to one friend or another in that 
portion of his correspondence which was with 
Governor Clinton, Mr. Adams, and Colonel 
Lincklaen. Most of the replies to these have 
been preserved, but it is not within the province 
of this sketch to offer these pages of discussion 
— interesting though they are — on ancient and 
modern literature, religions, and history, save 
as the latter touch upon the writer's times. 

But it seems best to give here, in chrono- 
logical order, the events mentioned in these 
letters in as nearly his own words as possible. 
They help to portray those last thirty years 
of his life, of which the autobiography says so 
little, and of which the Dutch students of the 
Patriotten-tyd, much as they write about him. 

are so ignorant. 

Olden Barneveld (1807). 

Spent this winter very agreeably with my old 
classic friends partly, to whom I have given a hearty 
welcome. The prospect of a supply of modern Lit- 


erature gives a new value to their visit. A part of 
my time to Crescimbini's Istoria della volg. Poes : a 
part in examining and noting Venema's £cc. Hist. 
on the Old and New Testaments, seven volumes in 
4to, the best I ever read on that subject in any lan- 
guage, only to the i6th Century. I knew that amiable 
old man in full vigour of body and mind, benevolent, 
pious, learned, tolerant, protector of learning, friend 
of youth yet a Calvinist clergyman. 

For a year my Dutch correspondence is lost, and 
a French friend warns me in closing his correspond- 
ence for the present, that every letter is opened, 
even those marked for Holland, and often kept back 
though insignificant. Except Mr. Mappa's and my 
own family I am here vox silentis ifi descrto. I de- 
voted much time to Metaphysics, and turn in this 
desert to gather a few flowers in the Canon Law, 
once my favourite study. When tired I visited 
Chaulieu and La Fare, and when they could not 
remove a growing dulness, Rabelais and Sterne 
made me laugh it away. I never lack a charming 
society ; nevertheless I must sip my glass alone, no 
longer filled with vin des coteaiix. 

His old friend Lindsey in London forgets 
him not in the matter of books, while from 
Philadelphia Paul Busti often supplies him 
with Italian literature, 

the Morgante of Pulci, and Ricciardetto of Palavicino, 


and Machiavelli's Works. Now shall I read Man- 
dragon, for which I have longed thirty years. I 
have been cheered by an affectionate letter from 
Cornelis de Gyzelaer, Luzac's executor and guardian 
of his children. My manual labor when I ought to 
wander vaosX. fra le purpurea rose c i bianchi gigli in 
my garden, is too long and continuous. My literary 
amusements degenerated too often in fatiguing ap- 
plications, and corroding cares, though well I know 
that earth-born cares are wrong. 


I long for a letter! We know if we give a finger to 
a child it grasps too often the hand, and so with 
a friend accustomed to receive without power to 

As we cannot converse together I indulge myself 
in writing. I only regret that I cannot always give 
it that seasoning which should render it palatable to 
your taste — not accustomed to a coarse fare — but 
your kindness will sprinkle some salt on it, and take 
my good-will in account and so it may do. 

You will not blame me if I make use of Sunday 
afternoon (the morning was employed in family 
worship) in writing to an honoured friend. This too 
is religious, to remember the favours which we re- 
ceived and show our gratitude in our good-will, 
though more is not in our power. 

Shall I receive the Syllabus from the Philosopher 
of Monticello or must you [Adams] ask his leave ? 

I am delighted with the invitation to Quincy, but 
have you remembered that I am blunt, and that in 


the woods this roughness cannot have received great 
poHsh ? 

I2th March, 1813. 

My sending the Wj'cath unaccompanied by a single 
line was occasioned by a short excursion to Sackett's 
Harbour to take a view of the boasted powerful de- 
fence of our frontiers, after the surprise of Ogdens- 
burg, courted so long by the iterated incursions on 
the defenceless and peaceable Canadians. It was 
indeed a severe retaliation from which the inhabitants 
shall not recover in many years, although all the 
robbed private property is restored or compensated, 
of which has actually been made a beginning. The 
loss of public property in cannon, ammunition, stores, 
is considerable and severely felt. 

I arrived Tuesday, a week past, at the Harbour, 
where I found a great deal of confusion and the im- 
mediate expectation of an attack by a superior force 
without adequate means of resistance, although a 
superfluity of blustering vaunting to beat the British 
if only 3000 British should dare to undertake it ! 
The place, however, had more the appearance of a 
crowded, noisy, European fair than that of a well 
regulated fortified camp. Every one went in and out 
at pleasure, friend and foe. Boy \sic\ seemed master 
to appearance, and a gloom was spread over the more 
prudent by their critical situation and prevailing 
Sickness. There were the Baltimore sons of Erin 
with the greens of New York and the valiant Col. 
McClure, who would fight the Devil, all these I doubt 
not would fight well if well led. There was CoL 


Macomb with his regulars and a few Troopers, with 
the Parthians, Elamites and those of Mesapotamia 
of our raw militia. I inspected too the navy, tho' 
in infancy, in an excellent condition, full of ac- 
tivity, and obeying orders at a wink, the crew 
under the gallant Leonard and Woolsey, the saylors 
who would have been chosen by any Naval Com- 
mander for an arduous enterprise, the marines in the 
best discipline under their brave and modest Captain 
Smith. If the Harbour could be saved, it would be 
through this navy. But I have not a shadow of ap- 
prehension that an attack was intended. The only 
view, I presume shall appear, was to fix our attention 
upon that spot, to lure tJiere all our possible forces, 
while day after day their troops in rapid succession 
are marching to the Western parts towards Harrison. 
From there I fear the sad tidings may be expected. 
This short excursion was beneficial to my health, 
having been during the whole winter in my study. 
I was much in want of some relaxation. At my re- 
turn I heard the mournful tidings of Mr. Livingston's 
death. I lament the loss of this valuable friend, one 
of the first with whom I associated in this country. 
He was a worthy man, to me an affectionate friend. 
The loss to this State in respect to arts and sciences 
is irreparable. At least, I know not one to succeed 


Boston, 27 Aug. 1813. 

Your letter afforded me an inexpressible pleasure 
— I was just returned from Cambridge. Judges, 

' MS. letter to Adams. 


Lawyers, Ministers, Doctors come and see me as 
if I was indeed something, and know not that 
my good-will is my principal merit, while it is to 
the partiality of my friends that I am indebted for 
the rest. . . . 

Saturday and Friday night Dr. Thatcher, Chan- 
ning, Holley visited me. Mr. Eliot took a walk with 
me to show me a part of the city — I must tell you 
in one word the city and the country and the inhab- 
itants exceed far the most glowing and partial ex- 
pectation — it is impossible to form of it an adequate 
concept. I must say come and see. Mr. Holley 
introduced me in the Athenaeum and shewed the 
Library of John Quincy Adams of several thousand 
volumes. Sunday I heard Mr. Holley. After church 
Dr. Freeman and Mr. Carey visited me. Monday 
Mr. Eliot carried me with his carriage to Quincy — it 
was there a house of mourning indeed — I was re- 
ceived with affectionate tenderness as a beloved 
Brother could be — I was there at home again. Mr. 
Eliot returned. There again Adams brought me in 
the afternoon with his coach to a neighbouring 
Doctor and shewed me the environs. He in person 
next morning conducting me to Mr. Eliot's. — On this 
journey he stopt at Mr. Quincy's. This family is as 
amiable as respectable. I give my word to see them 
once more and hope next week to bid them farewell. 
Tuesday afternoon new visitants and invitation to 
see the pourtrait of Buckminster at Sam. Dexter's. 
Wednesday Mr. Tyng, Brother in law of Mrs. Eliot, 
brought me in his carriage to Cambridge where I 


was introduced again to numbers, saw a large and 
exquisite Library, was placed in the procession with 
distinction, in the church occupied no less honourable 
place, heard all the performances, dined at the col- 
lege and drank tea by the President Kirkland who 
introduced me to the Governor, Lieutenant Gover- 
nor, and a host of Doctors. I was present again at 
the solemnities in the morning, and dined at the 
President's, where among the guests was Judge 
Smith, late Governor of New Hampshire, several 
Judges, and a brother of Abbot of Coventry. After 
dinner he too came in to see me. Towards even- 
ing old Mr. Eliot came with his carriage to bring me 
to Boston. Norton had been my guide and com- 
panion. Messrs. Savage, Abbot of Boston, Dr. 
Prince of Salem, another of Exeter, Messrs. Everett, 
Prof. Peck and Ware ; (by the latter I breakfasted), 
were among the principal of my new acquaintances. 
Charles was yesterday, as a mark of particular esteem, 
unanimously chosen at Cambridge a member of the 
P. b. k. Society an honour seldom or never bestowed 
out of the college. To-day I must dine with Mr. 
Eliot's son in law — I had an urgent invitation of 
Dr. Morse. 

My love to both families. Strew roses, my dear 
Bartha, to cover the thorny path of your Mother. 
I remain, 

Your best friend, 

F. A. V. d. K.' 

^ To his daughter. 


' Boston, Monday Morning, 

Sept. — 1813. 

I give myself the pleasure of answering your 
affectionate lines this morning while all my friends, 
I hope, are comforted by sleep. 

To-morrow I leave Boston — Friday morning I 
left Mr. and Mrs. Adams. Col. Smith brought me 
home. My worthy friend was much affected at my 
departure, as it is presumptive that we shall see one 
another no more. He failed not once to remember 
Mappa and your Mother at Olden Barneveld, and re- 
gretted more than once that you or she had not ac- 
companied me. 

Mrs. Eliot rejoiced at my return, it was a day 
later. My new friends renewed their visits, Chief 
Justice Parsons, Messrs. Lowell and Norton. In the 
afternoon Mr. Eliot ordered his coach to have me 
brought again to Cambridge with his brother Tyng 
to see Prof. Peck's cab [inet] of Nat. hist, and Hor- 
tus Botanicus. In the evening I saw Charles. Sat- 
urday I dined with Mr. Eliot at his son in law's, 
Sunday morning I went with Mr. and Mrs. Eliot 
and daughters to Lowell's church and partook of the 
Lord's Supper, while I heard in the afternoon Presi- 
dent Kirkland, who visited me during the inter- 

There is no longer any hope of Charles Eliot's 
recovery. I shall see Charles' sister at Springfield 
and stay there one day, after this visit I must stay 
one day with your friend Sophia Childs,'' 

' To his daughter. - Daughter of Timothy Childs, M.D. 


Olden Barneveld, 21 Sept., 1813, 

... At Pittsfield I was introduced by Dr. Childs' 
family to Mr. Watson and Mr, Allen, who showed 
me many civilities, the latter is the son-in-law of an 
old acquaintance, Dr. Wheelock. Mr. Dwight, son- 
in-law of my friend Eliot gave me a letter to young 
Sedgwick who showed me a great deal of politeness, 
giving me his carriage to Pittsfield. One of his 
sisters is a Mrs. Watson of New York, with whose 
conversation I was highly charmed.' 

4 Oct., 1813. 

... I am daily at Quincy seeing you leaving your 
seat at the table and placing it next mine to honour 
me with this distinction. I listen to Mrs. Adams as 
often she pleases to amuse and instruct her society. 
What a loss I did not ransack your library ! as many 
weeks as I spent days would be too little, and it fell 
short of your and Mrs. Adams' conversation. Tell 
her I ardently wish two young Ladies now my cor- 
respondents could form themselves in her school, 
and letter-writing would be celebrated as an exqui- 
site ornament of a Lady.' 

22 Sept., 1814. 

. . . Here too is all confusion, orders and counter- 
orders daily, numbers of waggons passing and return- 
ing with their load, countermanded by expresses. 
Monday the largest part of our Regiment was drafted, 
amongst them my son. It pained greatly his 
mother and sister, I approved. His sister made 

' To Adams. 


his knapsack, and got his things together. Tuesday 
evening they were embodied and ordered to march 
Wednesday. At night counter-orders arrived. Wed- 
nesday morning they were discharged. Yester- 
day passed this neighbourhood four thousand men 
with General Izard from Plattsburg for the harbour. 
They pay here now $2.00 for wheat, Zd for beef, 2/ 
for butter, and in proportion for every article. Could 
England be worse ? 

I see my son in his native State doomed to con- 
scription, and the constitution violated by its 


Oct. 5th, 1814. 

. . . He did his duty, and marches to-morrow to 
the Harbour. The British fleet is in sight, ours is 
brave and well commanded. God grant our militia 
may be firm, they are badly armed.' 

Dec. 19, 1814. 
Le plus grand hicn que soit en amitic est s'entre- 
scrire on se dire de bouche, soit bien, soit dueil, tout cc 
qui au coeur touche, says Marot. I am again in the 
Ancient History of Greece, . . . I dim Wke T envoy 
of the ballad 

Four /aire plus lost mal que bicn 
Frere Lubin le /era bien, 
Mais si c'est quelque bon affaire 
Frere Lubin ne le peult /aire. 
I have received a very polite letter from the Dutch 
minister M. Changuion, with interesting state docu- 
ments ; he offered me his services, he has sent my 

' To Adams. 


oration to his Government and requested a copy of 
the Symposimn. 

I have always disliked learned women, no matter 
what their class or distinction, I was always dull 
and uneasy in their presence : a well instructed mind 
adorned with graceful manners showing with a bril- 
liant luster through her usual domestic employ- 
ments, is of infinitely more value, even Madame de 
Stael clouded with darkness. ^ 

It is doubtless the possibility of the coming 
of Corinne which is here alluded to. 

For the benefit of his daughter, Necker had 
arranged at Coppet with Le Ray de Chaumont 
and Gouverneur Morris for lands in Penn- 
sylvania, and 23,000 acres in St. Lawrence 
County, New York, and Madame de Stael long 
intended to visit the United States and estab- 
lish one of her sons in the care of this prop- 
erty,^ which she later augmented by purchases 
through Le Ray, to whom she was related. 

" I cannot imagine,"^she writes him, " a more 
noble career than yours [in America] : had 

' MS. letter to Adams. 

* She held these lands until her death, and was kept informed of 
their condition by a yearly letter from Judge Cooper of Coopers- 
town, Otsego County. " I knew and respected him," wrote Adams, 
" indeed one of the great Pioneers." 


I not my European habits I should deHght to 
become an inmate at Le Raysville. 

" Life is everywhere much the same ; the 
senses are of some account, the rest depends 
on the cast of mind, the view we take of things, 
the art of being occupied, and finally friend- 
ship to banish ennui. . . . To set up a little 
summer establishment in a new country which 
is rapidly advancing, to spend there from three 
to five months of the fine season, to remain 
four months more at New York or Philadel- 
phia and to spend the remainder of the year 
in travelling," would^have been to her mind. 

In view of her taking this step she had been 
advised that she would find the most congenial 
society at Olden Barneveld, not far from Le 
Raysville, and it is perhaps this prospect which 
is reflected in the letter. Needless to say she 
never came. 

' Olden Barneveld, November 9, 1815. 

Musing on Moli&re, the last precious gift of de 
Gyzelaer, which I received this summer, I was as 
usual diverted from him to you, recollecting your 
kindness. My own health is improved, my old 

' To Adams. 


enemy raps only now and then a lady's knock 
at the door; though I am not always permitted to 
say not at home, oViX pour par ler does not last long. 
I shall go to-night to make a party of Quadrille with 
my old friend Mappa, but tell it not in Gath. I 
have laid aside all serious studies for a time, turning 
to Shakespeare, and amused myself with Rcdi il 
bacco in Toscana. I am delighted with Fortiguerra's 
admirable Ricciardetto. Can you send me Ronsard's 
Podsics and Condorcet? And can you explain the 
spinning with a distaff ? I can't conceive how. It 
is yet done in Siberia,' 

In the famous "cold summer" of 1816, when 
in July he is repairing the damages of frost in 
his garden, he writes to Adams that 

Jefferson has now sent his Syllabus to me and I 
will publish it if possible [in London] : there will be 
no hint of the author. 

I send the Syllabus in my own handwriting with 
a letter to all appearance written in England, and 

' Every Country Girl in New England or New York can teach 
better than Hercules to spin on a distaff, which is a long conical 
Piece of round Wood, round which the well heckelled flax is bound 
and drawn out in Thread by the Thumb and finger and twisted round 
a spindle turned by a foot Wheel. 

I should as soon think of sending to a sattellite of Jupiter for fire 
to light a segar, as to Siberia to learn to spin. 

I have written four times as much as I thought I could, but you 
always strengthen 

John Adams. 

MS. letter to v. d. K., Penna. Hist. Soc. 


have engaged my friends shall not permit them- 
selves a surmise with regard to the author, of my 
letter I requested correction/ 

I was every evening much fatigued. An unex- 
pected visit of Mr. Varick from Utica, and Mr. 
Childs of Cazenovia, and Mrs. Seymour recruited 
my exhausted strength, and I was refreshed in the 
morning. Your letters in my deep retirement are 
really the balm of life, an old tried friend, an old 
wine, are above price. 

^Boston, Sept. 5, 1S20. 

Yes, I thank my God in blessing me with such a 
daughter — How gratifying was your affectionate let- 
ter to me — not less so to Mrs. E. and C. 

The attention of the Rev. Dwight gives me a sensi- 
ble pleasure — every mark of regard of such a man is 
to me a gratification which I am more eager to obtain 
than anything else. Saturday at Professor Shat- 
tuck's was a chosen company and an elegant dinner, 
and in the evening our family meeting was increased 

' The Syllabus was the " Estimate of the merit of Jesus compared 
with others" which Jefferson composed in 1803 "on the road to 
Monticello," and which he sent to Dr. Rush, to whom he had prom- 
ised his views on the Christian religion, with a letter. Randall says 
(vol. iii., p. 561) that " He never showed it to more than two or three 
persons, two of whom were John Adams and Mr. Short." 

The Buffalo Historical Society now owns the autograph copies sent 
by him to van der Kemp of both letter and Syllabus. The latter is 
endorsed by van der Kemp: " Publ. in England, Monthly Repos. 
of Theol. and Gen. Literature, LXXX., vol. xi., Oct., 1816, Pag. 

This periodical was published in London, 1769-1788. 

^ To his daughter. 


with Mr. and Mrs. Dwight and Miss Astley of Phila- 
delphia — Sunday morning I shared in the commun- 
ion at Mr. Channing's dined at Mrs. Borlands heard 
Dr. Gardiner the Episcopalian and had before sup- 
per some music by Sam, Gate, Anna, and Mary. 
To-day I must pay some visits, and dine to-morrow 
at Mr. Dwight's. . . . Tell Sophia I begin to 
calculate when to return, but think not that I can 
leave this enchanted palace before the 14th or 15th. 
About that time I may obtain leave. We expect 
now every moment William from two years absence 
over the Atlantic ! . . . 

This instant I received an invitation to dine with 
the members of the bar of Suffolk tomorrow, which I 
must decline, but I shall assist in hearing the ad- 
dress, after that with all speed to Mrs. Dwight's. 
September 4th next Friday week my return home is 
fixed, and my friend Tyng shall accompany me 
so far as Stockbridge or Northampton. Thursday 
morning at seven I travel with uncle Tyng to New- 
buryport to pay visit to Mrs. Carson — we return on 
Thursday by way of Salem and on Friday I go to 
Ouincy to bid my last farew^ell to my friends. . . . 

Farewell, my dearest Bartha, ere long I hope to 
embrace you and your dearest Mother. Believe me 

Your best friend and 



' He received in 1820 from Harvard University the honorary degree 
of LL.D. 


Olden Barneveld, Sept. 25, 1820. 

I cannot express my feelings for the affectionate 
reception which I met with at Montezillo. You 
treated me as a brother — as a friend — with cordiality 
which was followed by each member of your family. 
It is not in my power to reciprocate it, but I thank 
my God sincerely for this undeserved blessing. I 
shall a long time feast upon it. When I walk in 
my garden and see your plum trees growing and your 
lilies in full flower, my imagination will transport 
me to Montezillo, and I shall listen if I do not hear 
the voice of John Adams.' 

10 June, 1821. 

It is not presumptive that we shall arrive at the 
acme of glory without some interruption, some con- 
vulsions. The black populace in some parts, the 
unprincipled education in others, the love of power 
in others may cause these, but they cannot be last- 
ing, they cannot crush the beautiful fabric, and then 
in the last resort Dr. Sangrado's Scignare etc. shall 
throw off the dregs, cpiirer the mass, and render 
America the future object of admiration on the 
globe. Do you suppose that we shall then obtain 
some information of the transactions on this puny 
planet ? or shall we be employed in higher topics 
of contemplation ? Whatever may be of this, may I 
be blessed by our Heavenly Father to enjoy a con- 
tinued existence, however humble, not far from those 
whom I have loved and revered.' 

' To Adams. 


Feb. 15, 1825. 

This instant I received from my grandson at 
Philadelphia the confirmation of the happy event of 
John Quincy Adams' election as President of the 
United States. Neither of us two can expect to 
enjoy this blessing many days, but we have seen the 
rising sun, our children and friends shall admire it 
in its meridian glory.' 

QuiNXY, 24th February 1825. 

The events of this month have been to me almost 
overwhelming. They have excited my sensibility 
too much, for a man almost ninety years, to bear. 
The multitude of letters of congratulations which I 
have received I can never pretend to answer, for it 
fatigues me to dictate even a few lines — but none 
of those letters have been more cordially welcomed 
than that of my friend Vanderkemp. I reciprocate 
all your kind wishes for my health and happiness, 
for yours and all your friends. . . . 

Present my respects & veneration to your excel- 
lent lady and thank her for her kind sentiments 
towards me — but my breath fails me and I must 
conclude with assurances of unabated esteem & 

John Adams 

Olden Barneveld, Sept. 1825. 
Often when I labour in my garden, — and I do so 
usually from sunrise till its setting — I expatiate with 

' To Adams. - MS. letter, Fenna. Hist. Soc. 


you and your son in your delightful mansion. Soon 
everything around you shall brighten, you shall re- 
vive a while, when the president your son visits you. 
Indeed your last days appear to me your best days.' 

One more letter was sent before Mr. Adams's 

I try to make my letter legible but I can scarce 
see enough to read or write, or even to distinguish a 
path from a bed when I am labouring in my garden. 
It cannot last long. Mrs. van der Kemp remains 
feeble, it is not surprising. She approaches her 
eightieth year. I have tried in vain for Flowren's 
treatise on nervous system in vertebrates. 

QuiNCY, 29, July 1826. 

Judge F. A. VAN DER Kemp — Olden Barneveld — 
New York.' 

My dear Sir 

Your very kind and friendly Letter of the loth. 
inst. which I received only a few days since has 
deeply affected me — Well do I know with what a 
respectful and affectionate attachment, my father 
cherished an acquaintance with you to the origin of 
which I was myself a witness, and of which the lapse 
of nearly half a century has not obliterated the 
memory — I know too how long and how cordially 
my dear and ever lamented Mother shared in those 
Sentiments, and the voice of Condolence from their 

1 To Adams. ^ MS. letter, Penna. Hist. Soc. 


friend is soothing to the afflictions of a Son, to 
whom the bereavement of a Parent's tenderness is 
rendered the more sensible even by the unusual 
length of years during which it was enjoyed. It is 
indeed one of the concomitants inseperable from old 
age, to witness the departure in succession of con- 
temporary and even of juniors in life; but every 
one of the surrounding friends withdrawn from the 
Scene, weakens the ties by which we are bound to 
earth — That many years of health and of comfort 
may be yet in reserve for you, is the fervent wish 
and prayer, Dear Sir, 

of your friend and faithful Servt 

John Quincy Adams. 

When John Adams wrote that "at the haz- 
ard of the little vision that is left I have read 
your travels in the v^ilderness," he referred to 
van der Kemp's Letters 07t a Tour through a 
Part of the Western District of New York, in 
i'/g2, which was at that time written in Dutch 
to gratify a few friends. It was later copied in 
English for his daughter without having the 
idioms corrected, and in 1823 van der Kemp 
sent to Governor De Witt Clinton "this baga- 
telle, to answer in some form the ' Circular 


Letter,' " of the Literary and Philosophical 
Society of the State of New York, on the sub- 
ject of a statistical account of that State. 

On this journey he became strongly attracted 
to Oneida Lake, long before he thought of 
living there, and his description of it is an 
idyl. Whether it was this charming narrative 
of his visit to the French cmigrd and his wife, 
then settled there on an island, or the account 
given of them three years later by the Due de 
Rochefoucauld-Liancourt that so touched the 
heart and imagination of de Tocqueville^ 
seems an open question. 

Much also was written about them in that 
manuscript journal" of the ill-fated Castor 
Land Company which sixty years later was 
found on a Paris book-stall. Of the three, 
van der Kemp's is by far the most poetic, and 

' The " book " quoted by de Tocqueville under the name of Lake 
Oneida is probably part of a larger work, as that title cannot be 
found here or abroad. As van der Kemp often sent his writings 
to friends in England and on the Continent, it is not impossible that 
his third " Letter" in Seymour's Address is the Voyage referred to. 
See de Tocqueville's Democracy in America, vol. i., p. 377, and 
Memoir Letters and Remains, vol. i., p. 131. 

''Anonymous. From July, 1793, to September 20, 1796. In 
Collections of Massachusetts Historical Society. 


is fairly matched by de Tocqueville's imaginat- 
ive and exquisite description of his sentimental 
pilgrimage with de Beaumont to the lake, 
" still and silent in virgin forests," and the 
island home of their countryman, forty years 
after de Wattines had left it for ever. 

But Clinton was chiefly impressed by an- 
other passage. He says: "Your letter to 
Colonel Mappa on the Canal written in 1792 
is really a curiosity. It gives you the original 
invention of the Erie route, and I shall lay it 
by as a subject of momentous reference on 
some future occasion." 

Under the act of 1804 a translator had been 
appointed for the Dutch manuscript records 
of the West India Company belonging to the 
State of New York. Little had been done, 
however, and in 181 7 Governor Clinton of- 
fered this " confidential and honorable office " 
to van der Kemp, promising the defrayal of 
his expenses, but nothing more. He so 
doubted his own ability that he accepted the 
task only upon a second offer, and provided 


that the initial volume of his work submitted 
for criticism to the Albany authorities should 
be first approved. This followed, and he 
deemed it a duty " to run the risk," though 
he " dared not answer for the issue." So, on 
the condition that the originals might be en- 
trusted to him at Trenton — " since he could 
be frugal at home but not so abroad," — he 
took up the work with joy. Years before he 
" had broken the ice to get from Holland all 
authentic documents from 1614 to 1648," and 
now again he wrote to his " cosyn J, C. van 
der Kemp, a member of the States General in 
Holland," for his intercession with the King 
of the Netherlands to procure the missing 
records of the West India Company, carried off 
by Napoleon, and placed no one knew where. 
" Mr. David Parish offered to bear part of the 
expenses, my compensation, if wanted [neces- 
sary], must make up the remainder," so much 
did he long for the "inexpressible delight" of 
" giving the State of New York what she might 
not have had without him." 
It was deeply interesting. 


With a few exceptions I would not desire a 
more complete instruction would I establish a mer- 
cantile colony. Nothing was to them a trifle, 
nothing overlooked. Commerce was the soul, and 
agriculture not neglected, in this settlement of 
merchants rather than colonists, feeble in strength 
if compared to New England, and yet so power- 
ful on the Atlantic that while New England fed 
them, they in their turn provided New England 
and Virginia with wares and merchandise, and 
often exported their products in armed vessels, sail- 
ing with New English colours to England. They were 
the possessors exclusively of the fur trade, of tobacco 
chiefly and of salt. But their government was aristo- 
cratic to excess, and bigotry tainted their religious 
establishment. There was no printing press, and yet 
so early as 1652 a minister was sent to preach at New 
Amsterdam, and in 1660 a fund was created for a 
Latin school at New Amsterdam, and a learned Lith- 
uanian professor named Crolius was engaged to in- 
struct the youth in that language.' 

The masters at home showed their displeas- 
ure at the persecution of the Lutherans, and 
commanded that they should enjoy at least in 
their houses the practice of their religion, while 
the black spot of the slave trade was somewhat 
effaced by their treaty stipulation with the Ind- 

' MS. letter to Adams. 


ians for the education of the Indian children 
at New Amsterdam. " All New Yorkers," 
sums up van der Kemp, "who dare to consult 
the translated Dutch record must blush with 
shame and confusion when they reflect how 
ignorant this State is of what it owes to the 
administration of a Stuyvesant, of which they, 
unknowingly, yet harvest the benefits." 

His difficulties in translating were Qfreat, 
often " wading through mud and dirt," the paper 
mouldered away, and his eyes dim with coming 
cataract. There were forty volumes, and it 
sometimes seemed as if his one earthly wish to 
accomplish this task and to have it approved 
might not be granted, the more as Governor 
Clinton's successor miorht not care to continue 
him in this post. However, after years of toil, 
by the summer of 1822 the last volume was 
safely transported with the originals to the 
Secretary of State's office in Albany. 

One of the closest friendships of van der 
Kemp's later life was this with Clinton. " To 
him," he said "this State owes not only the 
canal, but the commencing growth of arts and 


sciences and the Revival of that noble custom of 
our Dutch forefathers here, of thankingf God 
annually for his undeserved blessing and im- 
ploring His mercy for our transgression. This 
cannot become obsolete ao"ain." He agfrees 
with him " that our country will be the chosen 
seat and favourite abode of learning and sci- 
ence," and he longs to have the government 
"construct on the heights of New York a splen- 
did observatory, superior to any in Europe." 

They had first met years before, perhaps at 
the house of his uncle, Gov. George Clinton, 
although as " Hibernicus " he described in his 
Letters his first visit to Olden Barneveld as 
in 1820 : 

Western Region, September, 1820. 

In one of my solitary walks with my gun on my 
shoulder, and my dog by my side, I strayed eight 
or ten miles from my lodgings ; and as I was musing 
on the beauties of the country, and meditating on 
the various and picturesque scenes which were con- 
stantly unfolding, I was roused from my reverie 
by voices which proceeded from persons at a short 
distance. In casting my eyes in that direction, I 
saw two venerable men with fishing rods in their 
hands angling for trout, in a copious and pellucid 


Stream which rolled at their feet. I was hailed by 
them, and requested to approach, which I imme- 
diately did, and in exchanging salutations, I found 
that they were men of the world, perfectly acquainted 
with the courtesies of life. One of them held up a 
string of fine trout and asked me in the most oblig- 
ing manner to go home with them and partake of 
the fruits of their amusement. Struck with the ap- 
pearance of the strangers, and anxious to avail my- 
self of the pleasure of their company, I did not 
hesitate to accept of their hospitable offer, on con- 
dition that they would permit me to add the wood- 
chuck, snipe, and wood ducks, which were suspended 
from my gun, to their acquisitions. This offer was 
kindly accepted. A general and desultory conversa- 
tion ensued, and we arrived in a short time at a 
small village, and on ascending the steps of an ele- 
gant house, I was congratulated by my new friends 
on my entry into Oldenbarneveld. In the course of 
an hour, dinner was served up, I sat down and en- 
joyed a treat worthy to be compared to the Sympo- 
sium of Plato. I soon found that these venerable 
friends were emigrants from Holland — that they 
were men of highly cultivated minds, and polished 
manners— and that they had selected their habit- 
ations in this place, where they enjoyed 

An elegant sufficiency, content, 
Retirement, rural quiet, friendship, books. 
Ease and alternate labour, useful life. 
Progressive virtue and approving Heaven. 


The elder of these gentlemen had received the 
best education which Holland could afford. He 
was brought up a clergyman, and at the commence- 
ment of the American Revolution, he became its 
enthusiastic and energetic advocate, and wrote an 
able work in vindication of its character and con- 
duct. In the struggles which subsequently took 
place in his native country, he sided with the Pa- 
triots. His friend held a high military ofifice during 
that commotion, and unites the frankness of a soldier 
and the refinement of a gentlemen with the erudition 
of a scholar. 

During their residence in this country, they have 
been attentive to its interests. As far back as 1795, 
the elder gentleman proposed an Agricultural So- 
ciety for this district, and addressed it in a luminous 

I was penetrated with the most profound respect, 
when I witnessed the various and extensive acquire- 
ments of this man. He is a perfect master of all the 
Greek and Roman authors — skilled in Hebrew, the 
Syriac, and the other oriental languages — with 
the German and French he is perfectly acquainted 
— His mind is a great and inexhaustible store-house 
of knowledge ; and I could perceive no deficiency, 
except in his not being perfectly acquainted with 
the modern discoveries in natural science, which 
arises in a great degree from his sequestered life. 
He manages an extensive correspondence with many 
learned men in Europe, as well as America. And 
although I had never heard of him before yet I am 


happy to understand that his merits are justly ap- 
preciated by some of the first men of this country. 

He had lately been complimented with a degree 
of Doctor of Laws, by a celebrated university of 
New-England. He is now employed by the state 
of New York in translating its Dutch Records — and 
through the munificence of David Parish, the great 
banker, he will be enabled to have transcripts of the 
records of the Dutch West India Company to fill up 
an important chasm in the history of this great state. 

Thus, my friend, I have made a great discovery. 
In a secluded, unassuming village, I have discovered 
tJie most learned man in America, cultivating, like 
our first parent, his beautiful and spacious garden 
with his own hands — cultivating literature and 
science — cultivating the virtues which adorn the 
fireside and the altar — cultivating the esteem of the 
wise and the good — and blessing with the radiations 
of his illumined and highly gifted mind, all who 
enjoy his conversation, and who are honoured by 
his correspondence. 

Olden Barneveld, April-May 1823. 

Your letter mitigates somewhat the cold unpleas- 
ing northerly blast, which requires the aid of a blaz- 
ing fire to subdue its rigour. We had this morning 
rain and snow and hail but it cannot diminish our 
prospect of the invigorating, blooming spring. We 
see already several flowers blossoming and the tulip 
shall join the Hyacinth in a few days. Our vege- 
tables are sprouting forward. How I would wish 


you here tomorrow — my High festival — with your 
lady. I would do myself the honour in offering her 
a superior Salmon trout, now we are compelled to 
eat it only with Mrs. Lincklaen and our friend 
Mappa's family, and be satisfied to drink a glass 
to the brim to the health of my Lord and my Lady 
Hibernicus. This is your friend's 71 anniversary 
[May 4] with that of the thirty fifth since his arrival 
in this happy land.' 

28 July '24. 

About three weeks ago, when weeding Bertha's 
flowers, I was delightfully surprised by Mrs. Josiah 
Quincy. She came at the wish of her father and 
husband, and must see all our cottage. When I 
opened the door of our front room, oh ! she ex- 
claimed, that is Clinton ! holding her eyes fixed on 
your countenance.* Bertha's health remains vacillat- 
ing, yet I hear her now spinning.' 

But life at Olden Barneveld had also a less 
serious side. Apart from the entertainment 
to be derived from the books of Colonel Mappa, 
numbering nearly nine hundred in English, 
Dutch, French, and German, and "the rem- 
nants" of van der Kemp's "once valuable 
library," which comprised at his death nearly 

' To Clinton. MS. letter, Columbia University Library. 
^ The fine portrait of himself given by Clinton to Judge van der 
Kemp. Now in possession of the Oneida Hist. Soc. 


fourteen hundred volumes/ the Dutch famiHes 
added to their love of reading and of hospitality 
that of keeping anniversaries and festivals. 
They observed the Emancipation of Holland 
in March, 1814, when van der Kemp's oration 
was read at a meeting at Mappa's house, and, 
no less loyal to their adopted country, they 
joined in celebrating the Peace in 1815. 

Though we possess neither bell nor cannon we 
were not idle. I was invited with two Republicans 
and a Federalist to arrange our rejoicings, we con- 
vened, read the Treaty, wished one another joy, and 
walked in procession, about two hundred persons, 
and were cheered by a good band of music, all Har- 
mony, every house was illuminated. 

When there were no unusual events, chess, 
and cards (at which the ladies were adepts), 
whiled away many evenings, and there were 
arrivals from the great world, like that of 
Herr Boomhorst, a Hessian nobleman, form- 
erly an officer in the Austrian service and 

' Pursuant to the terms of his will, the library was sold on July 
15, 1830. ... " The largest purchase was made for the library at 
Cambridge at prices equally indicative of generous liberality and 
strenuous competition. The sale sustained the literary reputation of 
the city." — Boston Daily Evening Transcript, July 24, 1830. 


under the Prince of Orange, and of Mr. Ber- 
nardus Blok, the old friend and host of the 
Chateau de Watte, who had been formerly 
" one of the warmest and most influential 
friends to the American cause." He came 
for several weeks in the autumn of 1808 with 
his daughter and secretary, on his way to fill a 
judicial office in the East Indies, and "his tale 
of European affairs was one of horror." 

New neighbours came who immensely di- 
verted them, like the "respectable, thin little 
Frenchman," a " man of the world, once 
clever, agreeable in company, knowing human 
nature, a pJiilosophe of the first rank, though 
like other philosophers unskilful in steering his 
own affairs," as witness his marriage with an 
" old lame widow," his buying a farm with- 
out seeinor it, and — " O Weimir ! " concluded 
Mappa, "going away without paying for it!" 

American friends from far and near often 
crossed the thresholds, and sometimes per- 
suaded Mr. van der Kemp, the " old Dutch re- 
cluse," as he called himself, to return their visits. 

" Depend upon it," he wrote Judge Miller 


in 1 8 16, "when I come to visit Varick it will 
be hard for you to prevent my coming one 
evening to drappier^ with you. You should 
command Guert Knickerbocker to appear at 
the general review." Such a review in 1812 
had been described in his Symposium Uti- 
cense, dedicated to Col. Benjamin de Wande- 
laer (Walker) one of the guests, who with the 
others, Breekop, Reinhart, Guert Knicker- 
bocker, assembled for a supper party at the 
house of an American friend, Francfort,^ whose 
wife is a Dutch lady. 

' Draper, railler fortement q'q'iin, " to jeer or banter." 

- Probably Judge [Morris S.] Miller. Born on Long Island, 1780, 
married Miss Maria Bleecker of Albany, lived at Utica, where he 
died in 1824. 

Abraham Varick was a lawyer and man of business who came to 
Utica in 1804, and later was agent (after Colonel Mappa) of the Hol- 
land Land Company lands north of Utica. He married Ann, widow 
of George Washington Clinton, and daughter of William Floyd, 
Signer of the Declaration of Independence. He was born in Hacken- 
sack, N. J., in 1780, and died in New York, whither he had removed 
in 1833, in 1840. 

Guert Knickerbocker was probably Colonel Mappa. 

Benjamin Walker, born in London, was a scholar of the Blue Coat 
school. He lived in France, and came to New York in the service of 
a mercantile house. In 1778, at Valley Forge, he became Aid to Baron 
Steuben, who regarded him always as a son. In 1 781-1782 he joined 
Washington's staff, and was Aid until the close of the war. He 
betame secretary to the Governor of New York, then entered busi- 
ness with General Benjamin Ledyard, was made naval officer of the 


Paraphrasing this account — too long for 
these pages, yet belonging to them— plenty had 
spread the table, neatness, elegance, and order 
betrayed the mistress's descent. The host said 
grace, and next congratulated his friends with 
the cup of welcome, a usage originating in Ger- 
many, still preserved in Holland, the welbeko- 
men van de Maaltyd, as Breekop says, of our 
Dutch folks. 

The wine, mild and generous, drowned our cares. 
Francfort seized the moment and ordered up some 
old Hoghheimer. It sparkled in the glass, it per- 
fumed the room, the last precious drops were poured 
out as a libation to the memory of that good old 
Dutchman who enjoyed that which he possessed, 
and left yet something behind for his grandchildren. 
The talk went on, first politics with now and then a 
broad shot at the poor Dutchmen, till grace was said 
by Francfort. When all again were seated, " Our an- 
cestors," he began, " were not afraid of a bumper," 
and filling his glass to the brim, said " follow me, 
my lads, if ye love me — 

Port of New York, and finally as agent of the Earl of Bath's great 
estate, came to Utica, then old Fort Schuyler, where he spent the 
rest of his life, caring also for the lands left him by Baron Steuben. 
Benevolent and hospitable, he died much regretted in 1818. 

Breekop was doubtless C. C. Brodhead, surveyor, and one of the 
engineers of the Erie Canal. See Pioneers of Utica. — Bagg. 


Een glasje iiaer de grade 

Was de wet van den goeden Bonifacie." 

With a solemn Wacht-heil the company drank the 
health of his wife, then came among the other toasts 
"the fatherland," "prosperity to the house," "our 
well wishers," and "the five V's — Vryheid, Vreede, 
Vriendschap, Vrotiwen, Vrolykheid'' — while among 
other songs Francfort gave 

Spant de wagen voor de paarden, 
Ryd er mee na Hurley toe. 

a well-known vaudeville recording the calm of the 
retreating inhabitants before the British invaders. 

After the company decamped, " Frank Noort 
ten halven " (who is plainly van der Kemp him- 
self) " smoked with Guert after the old Dutch 
fashion our Mantel pypje^' ^ and " then came a 
glasje of de val reep, — a stirrup cup, — and so 
Adieu. ~ 

• Mantel pypje, a pipe smoked with one's cloak on, ready to start ; 
een glasje op de val 7-eep is also used in the same sense, the val reep 
being the rope hanging by a vessel's side to assist the sailors in going 
up and down the ladder ; also used for the ladder itself. [Mr. A. J. 
van Laer.] 

- With all the fun, van der Kemp's real purpose in this paper is to 
resent, hotly and logically, the too frequent ridicule of the Dutch by 
Americans, whom he considered less just and generous towards his 
country than the English. Even Randolph indulged in it on the 
floor of Congress. Without stooping to reprisals in satirising the 
weak points of his adopted countrymen, he takes his revenge in 


There were other festivals. On December 
19th he gave thanks for his release from prison. 
The 4th of May, the anniversary of his birth, 
and of his landing with his wife and children 
in America, was ever honoured. " December 
6th was a day of joy," always " Mappa and his 
family were with us, all the world seemed in- 
cluded in our little room," for it was Mrs. van 
der Kemp's birthday. 

In 1827 this birthday was celebrated for the 
last time. On September 6, 1828, Mrs. van 
der Kemp, in her eighty-first year, passed away. 
Alas ! "He lost in her — to whom he was so 
infinitely indebted — an undeserved blessing." 

In the previous April- Colonel Mappa had 
died. After long enjoying " peace, plenty, and 
uninterrupted health," in his later life he had 
been bowed down with financial troubles, then 
so common to ventures in the land business, 
and with sorrow for the loss of his wife, " that 

showing their ingratitude to that great people whose outstretched 
hand had strengthened the United States in her sorest need, and 
made possible her freedom, and ends with a panegyric upon Adams as 
he had known him both in Holland and America, and with a warning 
that no country recovers its liberties twice under a Republican form 
of government. 


excellent woman, Mrs. van der Kemp's only- 
friend in a foreign land." When, after the 
custom of the time, his pastor preached his 
funeral sermon, 

We have lost [he said] a man of pure character, in 
whose word all classes confided. His agency in the 
settlement of these lands, his administration of equity 
and forbearance, the trust which people in their land 
concerns reposed in him, were a blessing to the 
inhabitants. Steady as the sun in his Christian 
course, a consistent Protestant and no pharisee, he 
conceded to all the right of private judgment which 
he claimed for himself. Never failing to respect 
the " venerable and benign institution of the Sab- 
bath, so blessed to the labourer and the poor," nor to 
attend while in health the services of the little church 
which he had aided to establish, he also set an ex- 
ample of moderation and submission to the judgment 
of others. At last called home in a good old age, 
his end was peace and assurance. 

" So they fall to the right and left ! God 
forbid that I should be doomed to remain 
alone in a desert," exclaimed van der Kemp 
when Mrs. Mappa died in 1814. Now though 
he was left the last of his generation, his dear- 
est friends gone before him, his prayer was 


soon to be granted, for only a year and a day 
of life remained to him. 

" I would not care to run again the same 
course," he said, " but I have not considered 
this world a vale of tears." Yet his career 
seems a sad one. He asked little of Fortune, 
but even the modest hope of gaining by his 
agriculture a competence to bequeath to his 
children,' of adding to his small income by 
literary and scientific treatises, vanished into 
air. Not until 1817, through Clinton, had he 
enjoyed the refreshing stimulus of congenial 
work which was, from the moment he entered 
upon it, fairly sure to be accepted. His trials 
were indeed lightened always by the devotion 
of his wife and children, the worldly success 
of a dutiful eldest son. But he had to bear 
ill health, pain, and increasing solitude, for 

' Although in 178S he flattered himself " that a few years well 
employed will convey to me and my family an honest and easy sub- 
sistence, the highest reward I desire," he was disappointed, like 
many others. Their names are on the list of other Dutch immigrants 
on the lands of the Holland Land Company, whose failures led its 
General Agent in 1810 reluctantly to dissuade his principals in Amster- 
dam from sending out any more Holland settlers to this country, where 
conditions were so new and so difficult that success was impossible 
even to men used all their lives to agriculture at home. 


most of his friends, both in the Old World 
and in the New, passed away before him, 
and those that were left more seldom took 
their part in the exchange of letters, which 
to him was like the breath of life, and 
his only companionship in many tracts of 

How did he meet these trials, and what led 
him through the desert places of those declin- 
ing years which all must cross who reach his 
age ? Happily, such consolations as found 
are, other things being equal, not beyond the 
reach of other pilgrims. Naturally as a gentle- 
man he cultivated kindliness and good-will 
toward all whom he knew, naturally the loyal 
and affectionate heart never forgot his friends, 
or doubted them because sometimes they had 
much and he always little. Man of the world, 
he diverted himself with literature. The bold 
soldier of Utrecht, the Patriot and reformer 
who in his time had burned with the wrath and 
the hope of the Revolution, knew well twenty 
and more years later how to " sit by a country 
fireside and listen " — well-trained soldier and 


publicist as he was — "to what was doing in 
Rome." . . . " The obscure inhabitant of the 
Western woods " worked with his own hands, 
early and late, in his "gardens," "charming" 
to him^s if they smiled by the Lake of Geneva 
or the canals of Holland, and welcomed his 
friends to his " cot," no matter at what per- 
sonal inconvenience in that small house of few 
rooms. Student of Groningen and Franeker, 
he drank deep of the Greek and Latin authors, 
while, as a modern, he explored as far as he 
might the fast widening domain of natural 

Lastly, Orientalist and clergyman of Leyden, 
as he was, he constantly read and re-read the 
Holy Scriptures in the original tongues, and 
from their unfailing source it would seem as 
if he drew the submission, the humility, the 
courage, and the Christian hope with which, 
without a trace of bitterness or regret, he 
accepted the disappointments of life and con- 
fronted " the time to be old, to take in sail." 

" Long since," he said, " I was weaned from 
an inordinate desire of seeing my days much 


prolonged. I grow more and more indifferent 
to the closing scene. From time to time, a 
bolt with which our heart was riveted, is 
loosened, and it is natural that we look undis- 
may'd at the instant when the last shall be 
removed. The Almighty shall be just and He 
is wise and good, this is the corner stone of my 
faith. Had I not believed in the gospel, I 
doubt not or many years past I should have 
ended my existence, now I live in hope." Yet 
he often longed for death, and when it came it 
was as he would have wished, "a short warn- 
ing," for his health to the last had been good. 
His son had visited him in August, he had 
been to see his old friend Scriba at Oneida 
Lake but the week before, and on the 31st he 
had written to his bosom friend in Holland, 
Peter Vreede^ — the same for whom he had 
placed his life and liberty willingly in jeopardy, 
and faced the long political trial in 1782 — 
forty-seven years before — what was to be the 
last letter of their lifelong correspondence. 

' Always of unquestioned integrity, firmners, and extraordinary 
talents. V. d. K. 


" Now I must close," it ended. " I can 
scarcely distinguish one letter from another. 
Whatever may happen I know you remain 
unalterably my friend, as, so long as I draw 
breath, shall I be yours. Once again, farewell." 

A week later, on September 7, 1829, his 
" passports were signed " as he had so long de- 
sired, and he "was dismissed." 

Twelve years before, the autobiography had 
been concluded with these words : 

You know, my dear John, although we lead an 
inglorious life, working hard day by day, though 
with pleasure, yet as labourers, — our income, with all 
your Mother's economy, and your sister's unrelent- 
ing care and industry, would be insufficient if we 
were not chiefly supported by your rare gener- 
osity ; and although to appearance in a low station, 
in a humble cottage, without carriage, or even a 
horse, yet we are beloved, we are respected by many 
who know us. We gained many a friend, and, God 
be thanked, we lost none; and we continued to be 
favoured with the good opinion of those who can 
bestow esteem. Among these I glory in an Adams, 
in a Jefferson and Jay, in Eliot's family, in Busti, in 
Piatt, in Scriba, and in the cordial and respectful 
friendship of you, my worthy son. 

The Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, the 


Academy of Arts and Sciences at Boston, — that of 
Philosophy, and Literature at New York, have as- 
sociated me with their members ; while a Jefferson, 
a Clinton, and many other worthies, distinguish me 
with their attentions in my retirement, and there 
yet I have not been idle. 

Early I sent to Dr. Toulmin a " Critical Disserta- 
tion on the person of Jesus Christ " which I fear is 

My *' Philosophical Researches " on the systems of 
Buffon and Jefferson, I undertook on the persuasion 
of Chancellor Livingston. 

I wrote a " History and Political Sketch on the 
Achaic Republic " with now Governor De Witt 

'* A Discussion on the Use of Copper by the An- 

The " Scripture Doctrine of Baptism." (Now in 

" Lectures for the Instruction of my Family." 

" The Scripture Doctrine on the Lord's Supper." 
(With the Rev. H. Dwight.) 

" Symposium Uticense." 

" A Tour through the Western Country, to the 

" History of Servetus," published in England. 

" Sketch on Agriculture." 

" Wreath for the Rev. Daniel Dow." 

Orations on the Death of Washington, and on the 
Dutch Emancipation. 

" Moral and Physical Causes of the Revolutionary 


Troubles." Published in Boston in the General Re- 

Memoranda concerning the character and person 
of Jesus Christ, with various smaller articles pub- 
lished here and in Europe. And so, my dear John, 
I am approaching the end of my career, not fearing 
it, nor anxiously wishing for its prolongation. 

Was your character less good, my Son ! had I 
observed in it glaring faults or predominant foibles 
which might be corrected, in seeing their deformity 
and noxious tendency in others, I might have had 
many lessons to bestow from my past conduct. 
Now it would do no good to lift up this veil. I am 
not unhappy ; I hope I am not unthankful for 
the numberless undeserved mercies bestowed on me, 
and yet enjoyed. I recommend you to my God, 
who will reward, for what is not in my power to 
recompense you, while you possess my love, and my 
ardent wishes for your happiness, and that of your 
dear Julia, and promising children. Adio. 

Fr. Adrian van der Kemp. 

Endeared to the people of his town as 
Judge van der Kemp was, "by his high 
Christian example, his unsullied honour and 
integrity, and his constant friendship," they 
bore witness to their regard for his children 
all their life afterwards. 


For forty years after her father's departure, 
Miss van der Kemp Hved on in the Httle 
cottage, with her brother Peter until his 
death, and after that alone. 

" I have a very strong attachment," she 
said, " to a long tried home, and never felt 
a wish to exchange it for a better," and she 
kept all exactly as when her idolised mother 
and father were there. 

One would be o-lad to know who were the 
various strangers sheltered under its roof dur- 
ing- her father's life, even whose names, she 
used to say, were often not disclosed to her. 
In her later days, refugees came no more to 
American villages, but she kept the spirit of 
the old hospitality fresh to the last. Her 
house was very pleasant, full of old pictures 
and of other interesting things, while the 
heavenly goodness of its mistress, her strong 
and well-trained mind and will, made its 
uplifting atmosphere. " But for her sustain- 
ing kindness," said Miss Mappa, " I should 
have sunk under my trials, and even in her own 
afflictions she has soothed and comforted me." 


So closely united was Miss van der Kemp 
from her earliest years with this oldest friend 
and constant companion, born in Holland 
like herself, that no sketch of her life would 
be complete without some account of Miss 
Mappa, whose personal ties, occupations, and 
circumstances were so much the same. 

Sophia Apollonia, the only daughter of 
Colonel Mappa, never married, and always 
lived within a stone's throw of Miss van der 
Kemp, save for a few years when after her 
father's death she first left the old place, now 
become her brother's, for a house of her own. 
From 1832 to 1841 she occupied the " Stone 
Cottage," " where all was in miniature save 
affection." Later she built again, this time in 
the village, another cottage, where she lived 
until her death, with two friends, Madame de 
Castro and her mother, Madame Marguerat, 
whose father was the well-known Dutch poet 

In January, i860, after a life which had not 
been without its troubles, Miss Mappa was 
taken away. " Now," wrote Miss van der 


Kemp, " there will be no let or hindrance to that 
generous, benevolent spirit which so delighted 
in doinof tjood, and makinof all around her 
happy, and this thought ought to forbid my 
dwelling on my loss, but it is indeed grievous 
to part with one so dear." 

Thus left, the last of her generation — for 
both her brothers had died — Miss van der 
Kemp kept on her way without repining, for 
" our holy religion " had taught her that not 
only a grateful, but a cheerful spirit was an 
"acceptable offering," She still interested 
herself in her many friends, her books and 
flowers, local affairs and public events, and 
happily she saw the end of the Civil War, 
surviving until January 3, 1868, when after 
a short illness she died in the eighty-third year 
of her age, revered and beloved by all, the 
last of the exiles who came from Holland 
so long before, and who had for so many years 
adorned with their character and attainments 
the little American settlement. 




"At an early stage of the American Revolution, 
when the struggle for liberty and independence was 
yet doubtful, the Dutch merchants,' who afterwards 
formed the Holland Land Company, warmly espous- 
ing the cause of this infant republic, came forward 
at every hazard to furnish her with supplies, in order 
to relieve the wants of her armies. The meritorious 
exertions of these individuals cannot be forgotten 
by the surviving patriots of the revolution, nor will 
the faithful records of history cease to attest them 
to posterity. 

" The government of the United States, in the 
enjoyment of peace and independence, being soon 
happily enabled by a wise and regular system of 
finance to satisfy the demands of their public credit- 
ors, the capital of a part of the debt thus contracted 
with the merchants of Holland was thrown into 
their hands at a moment when the convulsions and 
revolutions of Europe threatened to subvert the 
whole fabric of civil society. Under these circum- 
stances they determined to reinvest the funds in 

' Especially van Staphorst, Stadnitski, and Willink. F. A. v. d. K. 
MS. letter to Adams, June 19, 1827. 



American lands, and during the course of the years 
1792 and 1793 the uncultivated wilds of the Genesee 
thus passed into the hands of the individuals who 
composed the Holland Land Company." — Memorial 
by Paul Busti.^ See Lincklaen's Journals, pp. 135, 


Poplar Forest near Lynchburg Apr. 25-, ib. 


Your favor of Mar. 24. was handed to me just as I 
was setting out on a journey of time and distance, 
which will explain the date of this both as to time 
and place. The Syllabus, which is the subject of 
your letter was addressed to a friend ° to whom I had 
promised a more detailed view, but finding I would 
never have time for that, I sent him what I thought 
should be the outline of such a work, the same 
subject entering sometimes into the correspondence 
between mr. Adams and myself, I sent him a copy 
of it. the friend to whom it had been first addressed 
dying soon after, I asked from his family the return 
of the original, as a confidential communication, 
which they kindly sent me. so that no copy of it, 
but that in possession of mr Adams, now exists now 
out of my own hands. I have used this caution, 

' Born in Milan, Italy ; came to Philadelphia in 1794 and died 
there 1824, Second General Agent of the Holland Land Company. 
" A good man of conspicuous talents and doing good wherever he 

' Dr. Rush of Philadelphia. 


lest it should get out in connection with my name ; 
and I was unwilling to draw on myself a swarm of 
insects, whose buzz is more disquieting than their 
bite, as an abstract thing, and without any in- 
formation from what quarter derived I can have no 
objection to it's being committed to the considera- 
tion of the world ... if the Syllabus and Extract 
(which is short) either in substance, or at large, are 
worth a place under the same cover with your 
biography [of Jesus Christ], they are at your service. 
I ask one only condition, that no possibility shall be 
admitted of my name being even intimated with the 
publication, if done in England, as you seem to 
contemplate, there will be the less likelihood of my 
being thought of. I shall be much gratified to learn 
that you pursue your intention of writing the life of 
Jesus, and pray to accept the assurance of my great 
respect and esteem. 

[Signed.] Th. JEFFERSON 

MONTICELLO July 30.- 16. 

Dear Sir 

Your favor of July 14. is received, and I am en- 
tirely satisfied with the disposition you have made 
of the Syllabus, keeping my name unconnected with 
it as I am sure you have done . . . 

MONTICELLO, Aug. 3, 23. 

Dear Sir 

Your kind letter of May 26. has laid too long 
by me awaiting an answer, the truth is that the 
difificulty of writing has obliged me even when in 


better health to withdraw much from correspondence, 
and now an illness of some weeks, from which I am 
just recovering, obliges me to use a borrowed pen 
to acknolege it's receipt, and indeed that is all I 
can do even now, my mind being entirely abstracted 
from all the business of the world olitical, literary, 
worldly or of whatever other form, my debility is 
extreme, permitting me to ride a little, but to walk 
scarcely at all. I am equal only to the passive occu- 
pation of reading, in this state of body and mind I 
can only assure my friends that I shall ever recollect 
with affection the pleasures their correspondence 
has afforded me, and shall pray without ceasing for 
their health, happiness & prosperity, among these 
I pray you to be assured that I entertain for yourself 
distinguished sentiments of esteem & high respect. 

Th : Jefferson 

[From the original letters to F. A. van der Kemp. 
The Buffalo Historical Society owns these and nine 
others, of which only three appear in Ford's edition 
of Jefferson's works.] 



Baron Robert Jaspar van der Capellen's brother, 
Alexander Philip van der Capellen, held the post of 
Kamerheer to the Stadtholder, until in 1783 the 
prince withdrew his confidence from him, influenced 
probably by intrigue, though acting under colour of 
his belief that the Kamerheer's " Cousin of Over- 
yssel " and his brother Robert Jaspar van der Marsch, 
who were publicly opposed to him, were planning 
the overthrow of the Stadtholderate. In vain the 
Kamerheer protested ; finally he gave up his key, 
virtually lost before. As the effect of this was to 
injure him, and as he sought in vain a satisfactory 
public exoneration from William, he printed his 
vindication entitled " The Conduct of Jonkheer A. 
P. van der Capellen related by himself to the Public." 

In 1787, when the Prussians invaded Holland, the 
defence of Gorcum was entrusted to him — being a 
" member of a noble and distinguished family — lead- 
ers of the patriot party." Forced by the inhabitants 
to surrender to the troops under the Duke of Bruns- 
wick, and being a person odious to the Stadtholder, 
he was thrown into a horrible prison at Wezel where 
his health was so injured that he died at Utrecht 
soon after his release, " snatched in the prime of life, 
from his country, his fragile wife and innocent 
children." See Kok. 



Mr, Theo. L. DeVinne writes September 12, 1898: 
" The late Mr. W. W. Pasko, who had some cor- 
respondence with Philadelphia type-founders about 
Mappa, told me that some of Mappa's types were 
shown in the Binny & Ronaldson specimens. It is 
possible that he sold to B. & R. the entire plant of 
the Mappa foundry. I have a copy of the Mappa 
specimen book issued by him in Holland. I com- 
pared the types in this specimen with those of the 
early New York type-founders, and am confident 
that his punches and matrices were not sold or used 
by any founder of this city." 



Aan>ne7-kingen over de Verklaering der Unie van Utrecht, door 
P. Paulus, in drie Brieven, geschreven door E. H. J. Amster- 
dam, 27 May, 1778. Pp. 126. [Bound up in fourth volume of 
Verklaering. '\ Utrecht: Wild, n. d. 

Derde Brief over de Drostendicnsten in Overyssel, door een Heer 
uit Twenthe, etc. July, 1779. [With an ode.] Svo, pp. 14S. 
Pamphlet. [First and second parts missing.] 

yr. yohan Derk van der Capellen, Heer van der Pol. Beschreven 
in de Ridderschap van Overyssel Regent. Leyden: Herdingh, 
1779. Svo, pp. viii., 238. 

y. D. van der Capellen, Regent, 1st Vervolg. (No title-page.) 
Preface, 2 pp. [Book begins with p. 239.] Svo, pp. 239-282. 

Tiueede Vervolg op yr. y. D. van der Capellen, Regent. Preface 
by Junius Brutus Cella, 28 Dec, 1779. Utrecht: B. Wild, 
n. d. Pamphlet, 8vo, pp. ii., 283-342. [Third and fourth 
parts missing.] 

Vijfde Vervolg en Slot op yr. y. D. van der Capellen, Regent, door 
Fr. Adr. van der Kemp. Leyden: Herdingh, 1785. [Book 
begins with p. 401 ; ends with table of contents of the whole 
work.] Oneida Historical Society. 

Procedures . . . Pieter Marcus vs. Francois Adriaan van der Kemp 
over het doen of laaten drukken van den Lierzang, etc. Door 
E.H.J. Leyden : Her diiigh, ly 80. Leyden: Herdingh, 1782. 
Pp. xlii., 236. Preface by van der Kemp. 



Verzameling van Stukken tot Noord- America betrekkelyk, etc., van 
Junius Brutus. Leyden: Herdingh, 1781. Pp. xlii., 300, 8vo. 
N. Y. Historical Society. Gift of F. A. v. d. K., 1818. 
Boston Public Library (Adams's Library.) 

[In 1785 this was advertised in Holland under v. d. K.'s name.] 
[The volume contains two letters of Governor William Liv- 
ingston and Jonathan Trumbull, the autographs of which he left 
with his manuscripts as a legacy to a European friend when he 
crossed the Atlantic] 

Elftal Kerkelyke Redevoeringen, door Fr. Adr. van der Kemp, 
Predikant by de Doopgezinden Te Leyden. Te Leyden : by 
L. Herdingh, 1782. Pp. vi., 243, 8vo. 

Beredeneerde Catalogus eener Verzn7neling van Schilderyen der eerste 
Meesters van Nederland. 'S Hage. Th, P. van Os, en voorts 
alomme in Nederland. [1783?] Pamphlet, 8vo, pp. viii., 32. 

[If not the one by van der Kemp, it is by Pieter Paulus. 
See page 86.] 

Historie der Admissie van jfr. y. D. van der Capellen tot den Pol, 
etc. Door Fr. Adr. van der Kemp. Leyden : L. Herdingh, 
1785. Svo, pp. 245. (Dedicated to Robert Jaspar, Baron van 
der Capellen of Marsch, etc.) New York State Library, Boston 
Public Library (Adams's Library). 

Andwoord op den der den en vierden Brief van Mr. H. Calkocn. 
Door Fr. Adr. van der Kemp. Te Leyden: by L. Herdingh, 
1785. Oneida Historical Society. 

[published in AMERICA.] 

Speech at a Meeting, at Whitestown, for the Institution of a Society of 
Agriculture. O. P. Easton. Whitestown, 1795. 4to, pp. 19. 
Pamphlet. New York State Library, Harvard Library. 

Eulogy of George Washington. February 22, 1800. New York 
State Library. 

A Wreath for the Rev. Daniel Dow. Utica, 1806. Pamphlet. 
Library of Columbia University, Harvard Library, 

An Oration Delivered on the nth of March, 1814, at Utica, Com- 
memorative of the Emancipation of the Dutch from French 


Tyranny. Utica : Merrell & Camp, 1814. New York State 
Library; Mercantile Library, New York City; Harvard Library. 

Sketch of a Desired Work. JMoral and Physical Causes of the Revo- 
lutionary Spirit in the Latter Part of the Eighteenth Century, 
with their Probable Issue on Both Cotitinents. General Re- 
pository, Boston, 18 13, vol. iv. , p. 390. Aanteekeningen, etc. 
Utrecht: June 23, 1862. 

Lambrechtsen's History of the Ne7u Netherlands. Translated from 
the original Dutch by the late Francis Adrian van der 
Kemp, Honorary Member of the New York Historical Society. 
Vol. i., Collections of the New York Historical Society, 1841. 

Letters to Colonel Adam G. Mappa ; a Tour through a Part of the 
Western District of New York in ijg2. 

[Appended to Seymour, J. F., Centennial Address at Trenton, 
N. Y., 1877. Pp. 47-128.] 


Metnoir on the Use of Copper by the Greeks. A letter to John 
Luzac, LL.D., Prof. Linguae Greci?e et Hist. Patriae, University 
of Leyden. 4th March, 1S03. Pp.69. MS. Buffalo Historical 
Society Library. 

Researches on Buffons a?td Jefferson's Theories in Natural His- 
tory, in Letters to Gerrit Boon, Esq., by Fr. Adr. van der 
Kemp. Pp. i., 270. MS. Buffalo Historical Society Library. 

Historical Sketches on Calvin and Servetus. MS. Harvard Library. 
[The sketch of Servetus was published in 1812 in the Mortthly 
Repository in England.] 

A Dutch Symposium in a Letter of Frank Noort ten halven to 
Painful Tickle. To Col. Benj. de Wandelaer [Walker]. 4th 
May, 1814. MS. Buffalo Historical Society Library. 

Twenty-eight Volumes of Translations from the Dutch Colonial 
Records of the State of Neiv York. 1638-1674. MS. New 
York State Library. 

[Often erroneously cited as the "Albany Records."] 

A Sketch of the Achaian Republic in Letters to Colonel fohn 
Lincklaen. By Junius Brutus. " Mutato nomine de te fabula 


narratur." — Horat. Sat., i., 70. 14 letters, pp. 250. MS. 
Oneida Historical Society, 
Lectures on the Scripture Doctrine of Baptism. MS. Oneida His- 
torical Society. 

The editor has found no copies of the following works named in 
the Autobiography, footnotes, and elsewhere, also advertised in the 
fly-leaf of the Historic, viz. : 

Laurel Wreath for a Few Nobles; the translation into Dutch of a 
sermon by a friend in England, The American War Lamented, 1781; 
Magazine of State Papers and Documents Relating to the Military 
jfurisdiction, 11 vols., 8vo ; Letters on the Corv^es in Overyssel ; My 
Amusements ; Five Sermons on Solemn Days ; and also the Defence 
of Colonel Alexander Philip van der Capellen, unless this be Het 
Gedrag [La Conduite] of this officer, Aan het Publicq door IIe?n zelve 
opengelegt [exposee par lui meme au Public], In 'S Gravenhage, by 
C. Plaat, 1784 ; Vijf Brieven over de Militaire jfurisdictie, de 
Quoten der Bondgenooten, en andere Pointen der Unie ; Vijftal 
Bedestonden ; Het gedrag van Israel eti Rehabeam ten Spiegel van 
Volk, etc. Vors in een Leerrede ; Stukken over de Drosten-diensten 
in Overyssel meest uitgegeven en by een verzameld; Lofrede op George 
Washington den 23sten van Sprokkelmund 1800 in Oneida District 
Staet van New York, door Fr. Adr. van der Kemp. ^'Anch' io sono 
Pittore." — Corregio. Svo, p. 30. Amsterdam, 1800. [See Wash- 
ingtonia, F. B. Hough, vol. ii., p. 270.]; Translation ("printed 
on the Continent ") of his correspondent Sir William Jones' Odes to 
Liberty ; Address at the Opening of the Erie Canal. Trenton, 
October 26, 1825. M]S.?] 

" Frank de Vry " was a nom-deplume of van der Kemp, accord- 
ing to Mr. G. van Loon. See his Beschrijving, Vervolg ii., p. 189, 
note 2; also p. 185, note 4. It is also attributed to Peter Vreede. 


Aanteekeningen Provinciaal Utrechtsche Genootschap van Ku7isten 

en Wetenschappen. Utrecht, 1862. Pamphlet. 
Adams, Charles Francis. The Life and Works of John Adams. 

Boston, 1S51. 10 vols., 8°. 
Bayley, Rafael L. The National Loans of the United States, 

Washington, D. C, 1882. 
Beredeneerde Catalogus eener Verzanieling van Schilderyen, etc. 

'S Hage. Th. P. van Os. Pamphlet, 32 pp. [Patriot.] 
Beschrijving van Nederlandsche Historie-Penningen, ten vervolge op 

het werk van Mr. Gerard van Loon. Amsterdam : Pieper & 

Spenbuur, and Fredrik Muller, i822-i86g. 10 parts in 2 vols. 

BOLLES, Albert S. The Financial LListory of the United States 

from 1774 to lySg. New York, 1879. 
Biographie Universelle. Michaud. Paris. 
Biographisch Woordetiboek der Nederlanden. Uitgeven onder Hoofd- 

redactije van D''- G. D. F. Schotel. (On binder's title " A. J. 

van der Aa.") Haarlem, n. d. 4 vols. Folio. 
Catalogue Raisonn^ d^ttne Collection de Tableaux, Feints par les plus 

farneux Artistes de ce Pais. En LLollatide, 1783. Pamphlet, 

32 pp. 
Catalogus Beredeneerde van eem uitmuntende Verzameling Schilder- 

yen, etc. Uit het Fransch vertaald. Ln LLolland, 1783. Pam- 
phlet, 37 pp. [Dutch translation of above.] 
Chalmot, J. A. DE, Biographisch Woordenhoek der Nederlanden. 

Amsterdam, 1798-1800. 8 vols., 8°. 


Chalmot, J. A. DE, Verzameling van Placaaten, etc. Campen, 

1788-93. 50 vols., 8°. 
Christian Reformer, or Unitarian Magazine and Review. London: 

Sherwood, Gilbert & Piper, 1S34-1863. 
Clinton, De Witt, Life and Writings. W. W. Campbell. New 

York, 1849. 381 pp., 4". 
Clinton, De Witt, pseud. " Hibernicus." Letters on the Natural 

History and Internal Resources of the State of Nezv York. New 

York, 1822. 224 pp., 8°. 
Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution. Jared 

Sparks. Washington, 1857. 6 vols. 
Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States of America, ijSj- 

lySg. Washington, 1837. 3 vols. 
Greene, George Washington. German Elemetit in the War of 

Independence. New York, 1876. 211 pp., 8°. 
Hartog, Dr. J. De Patriotten en Oranjen van I'j^y-i'jS'j. Am- 
sterdam, 1882. Pamphlet, 245 pp. 
Hartog, Dr. J. Uit de dagen der Patriotten. Amsterdam : P. N. 

van Kampen, n. d. 238 pp. 
Holland, History of. C. M. Davies. London, 1841. 3 vols., 8°. 
Hough, Franklin B. History of Lewis County, Neiv York. 

Albany, i860. 319 pp., 8°. 
Hough, Franklin B. History of Jefferson County, Neiv York. 

Philadelphia, 1870. 593 pp., large 4to. 
Hough, Franklin B. Washingtonia. Roxbury, 1865. 2 vols., 

272 pp., 4to. 
Hough, P. M. Dutch Life in Town and Country. New York, 

1901. 291 pp., 8°. 
Jefferson, Thomas, Life of. Henry S. Randall. New York, 

1858. 3 vols. 
KOK, J. Vadcrlandsch Woordenboek. Amsterdam, 17S5-1796. 

35 vols. 
LiANCOURT, Due DE LA RocHEKOUCAULD. Voyages dans les £tats 

Unis d'Atnt'rique en lygj-gb-g"/. Paris 'an VII de la Re- 

publique, [8 vols.] 


Livingston, William, Governor of New Jersey. Life of. T. 
Sedgwick, Jr. New York, 1833. 449 pp., 8". 

LoosjES, A. Een Krachtig Libel. Studie over het pamflet Aan het 
Volk vati Nederland. Haarlem : Loosjes, 1S86. Pamphlet, 
116 pp. 

Loosjes, A. Nog een en ander over het fa/nflet Aan het Volk 
van Nederland. Amsterdam: Egeling, 1891. Pamphlet, 
19 pp. 

Monthly Anthology and Boston Review. Boston. 

Morris, Gouverneiir, Diary and Letters of . Anne Gary Morris. 
New York, 1880. 2 vols., 8°. 

Morris, Gouverneur, Life of. Jared Sparks. Boston, 1832. 3 
vols., 8". 

Nieiiwe Nederlandsch Jaar Boeken. 

Piojieers of Utica. M. M. Bagg. Utica, 1877. 665 pp., 8°. 

Price. Aanmerkingen over den aart der burgerlyke Vryheid, over 
de Gronden der Regeering, en over de Regtveerdigheid en Staat- 
kunde van den Oorlog met Atiierika. . . . Uit het Engelsch 
vertaald. Door Johan Derk, Baron van der Capellen. Leyden : 
L. Herdingh, 1777. 8°, Library of State Department, Wash- 

Procedures in de zaak van Mr. Pieter Marctis op en tegen Francois 
Adriaan van der Kemp over het doen of laaten drukken van den 
Lierzang, etc. Door E. H. J. Leyden : L. Herdingh, 1780. 
Leyden: L. Herdingh, 1782. [With Introduction by van der 
Kemp.] Pp. xlii., 236. Pamphlet, 8°. 

Schuyler, G. W. Colonial Neiu York. New York, 18S5. 2 
vols., 8°. 

Seymour, John F. Centennial Address delivered at Trenton, 
N. Y., July 4, 1876. IVith letters from Francis Adrian 
van der Kemp, written in I7g2, etc. Utica, N. Y., 1877. 
149 pp., 8". 

Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy iti America. 4th ed. Cam- 
bridge, 1864. 2 vols. 8°. 
Tocqueville, Alexis de, Memoir, Letters and Remains of. Boston : 
Ticknor & Fields. 2 vols., n. d. 8°. 


Trumbull, Jonathan, Governor of Connecticut, Life of. I. W. 

Stuart. Boston: Crocker & Brewster, 1859. 700 pp., 8°. 
Uit de Gedenkschriften van een voornaavt N'ederlandsche beambte. 

Mr. H. VAN A. Tiel: H. C. A. Campagne & Zoon, 1882. 

Pamphlet, 284 pp., 8°. 

Une Invasion Prussienne en Hollande en 1787. Pierre de Witt. 
Paris, 1886. 

Van der Capellen de Marsch en Lathmer, M ^moires. Paris, 1791. 
530 pp., 8°. 

Memorie van den Heere van de Marsch. [The same as above 
but in Dutch.] Dunkirk: van Schelle & Comp., 1791. Pp. 
XXX., 437, 8". 

Van der Capellen tot den Pol. Joan Derek, 1741-1784. J. A. 

SiLLEM, De Gids, Nov., Dec, 18S2. Amsterdam. 
V^a7i der Capellen tot den Pol. Joan Derek, Brieven van en aan. 

W. H. Beaufort. Utrecht Hist. Genootschap, 1879. 854 

pp., 8°. 
Van der Capellen tot den Pol. Joan Derek, Brieven van en aan. 

Aanhangsel. J. A. Sillem. Utrecht, Kemink, 1883. loi pp., 


Van der Capellen tot den Pol. Advis. 16. December, 1773. Te 
Atnsteldaui. By Frans Hendrik Demter, Boekverkoper in 
de Pylsteeg. Pamphlet, S pp., 4to. [Speech opposing the lend- 
ing of the Scotch Brigade to the King of England for service in 
America. Edition sanctioned by the author.] 

Van der Capellen tot den Pol. Aan het Volk van A'ederland. Os- 
tende, September, 1781. Pamphlet. 76 pp., 8°. 

Van der Capellen tot den Pol. Aan het Volk van Nederland, i7QS- 
[Reprint. Bound up with other pamphlets regarding it.] Astor 

Van der Capellen tot den Pol. An Address to the People of the 
Netherlands. Translated from the Dutch original. London : 
J. Stockdale, 1782. Pamphlet, 137 pp., 8°. Astor Library. 

Van der Capellen tot den Pol. Liber Amicorum, and List of Pro- 
perty. MSS. 

fVatson, Elkanah, Memoirs of; or Men and Titnes of the Revolu- 
tion. New York, 1856. 460 pp., 8°. 


Abbot, of Boston, 164 
Abbot, of Coventry, 164 
Achoean Republic, 155, 199 
Adams, John, 56, 70, 71, 73, 74, 
78, 103, 145, 146, 158, 163, 
165, 166, 170, 173, 174, 175, 
Acknowledgment as envoy in 

Holland, 71 
Arrival in Amsterdam, and 

negotiation of loan, 65, 66 
Independence of United States 
acknowledged in Holland, 

71, 73 
Meeting with van der Kemp, 
Adams, John Quincy, 163, 174, 

Aerdenberg, 21 
Agriculture and Natural History 

Society, 1 30-1 31 
Albany, 103 
Allen, Mr., 166 
Altforst, 29 

American Independence : 
Banquet at Amsterdam, 62 
Dutch merchants' support, 

Scotch Brigade, 37 
Van der Capellen's support, 36, 
63, 65-74 

Amerongen, Baron of, 94 
Amersfoort, 90, 93, 96 
Amsterdam, 17, 62, 99, 106 
Antwerp, 103, 105 
Appeal To the People of Nether- 
land, 54-58 
Appeltern, 29, 56, 58, 70, 79 
Arnheim, 30, 106 
Athenaeum, 163 
Athlone, Lord, loi, 102 

Baltimore, 114 

Baptist Seminary at Amsterdam 

Barbeyrac, 41 
Barneveld [formerly Trenton] 

137, 140, 153, 154 
Bax family, 2, 7 
Beeckman family, 61, 117, 123 
Belsham, Mr., 6 
Bentinck, 34, 75 
Bernhard, Mr., 134 
Bernhard's Bay, 134 
Blaeu, Rev., 15 
Blok, Bernardus, 145, 188 
Bonnet, Professor, 22 
Boomhorst, Herr. 187 
Boon, G., 130, 137, 138, 151 
Boston, 162, 165, 171 
Brabant, I02, 117 
Bredenhorst, 35 



Brederode, House of, 30 
Breekop, 189, iqo 
Brehan, Marchioness de, 121 
Brodhead, C. C, 190 
Brunei, Marc I., 136 
Brunswick, Duke of, 98, 211 
Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, Duke 

of, 36 
Brussels, 105, 106, no 
Bufion, 155 

Busti, Paul, 159, 19S, 20S 
Buzek, Baron, 93 
Bynkershoek, 41 

Calvin, 156 

Cambridge, 162, 163, 164, 165 
Camper, Professor, 12, 13 
Canaseraga Hills, 128 
Canon Law, 156, 159 
Capellen, see van der Capellen 
Capelkn Regent, 64 
Carey, Mr., 163 
Carson, Mrs., 172 
Castorland, 119, 136, 138, 177 
Catalogue Raisonn^, 100 
Cau, J. J., 89, 157 
Cazenovia, 135, 137, 171 
Changuion, M., 167 
Channing, Dr., 172 
Chassanis, M., 136 
Chateaubriand, 132 
Chaudoir, 18 
Chaufepie, Professor, 10 
Chaulieu, 159 
Chevalier, Professor Paul, 13, 

Childs, Mr., 165, 166, 171 
Childs, Sophia, 165 
Christian Reformer, 6 

Christian revelation, study of, 

Clinton, Governor De Witt, 113, 

158, 176, 178, 181, 186, 194, 

Clinton, Governor George, 182 
Collection of State Papers by 

yutiius Brutus, 45, 49 
Collins, Rev., no 
Constable, William, 136 
Cooper, Dr., 58 
Cooper, Judge, 168 
Copper — " Use of Copper among 

the Greeks," 155, 199 
Coppet, 168 
Cortlandt, Col., 148 
Corve'es abolished, 43, 62, 63, 

Crescimbeni's Istoria della volg. 

Poes, 159 
Crolius, 180 
Curtenius, in 

Daendels, 143 
Dana, Mr., 66 
Dantzig Baptists, 113 
De Castro, Madame, 202 
De Famars' regiment, 9 
De la Lande, 71 
De Neuville, Mr., 67 
De Rhoer, Jac, 11 
De Witte family, 4, 7 
Delaware, 117 
Delft, 143 

Delineation of the conduct of Is- 
rael and Rehoboam, 53 
Delmina, 16, 17 
Dorset, Marquis of, 99 
Drostendienst, 63 



Dundas, James, Sarah, Eliza, 134 
Duurstede, Wyk te, 84 
Dwight, Mr., 166, 171, 172 

Edict of Nantes, loS 
Eliot, Charles, 164, 165 
Eliot, Mr., 163, 164, 165, 198 
Elizabethtown, 114 
Emancipation of Holland, 187 
Equestrian Order of Overyssel, 

46, 62, 86 
Erkelens, Gosuinus, 39, 40 
Esopus, 116 
Everett, 138, 164 
Extract, 209 

Faille, de la, 92, 93 
Feldman, 15 

Ferrier, Angel de, 134, 135 
Five Sermons on Solemn Days, 

Fizeaux loan, 68 
Fort Brewerton, 128 
Fort Stanwix [Rome], 121 
France, 98, 99, 106, 108 
Francfort, 189, 190, 191 
Franeker University, 18 
Franklin, Benjamin, 113, 114 
Frederick the Great, 96, 150 
Freeman, Dr,, 163 
French Revolution, 107 
Friesland, 60 
Fynje, 71 

Gallitzin, 113 
Ganganelli's Letters, 21 
Gardiner, Dr., 172 
Garnalen Market, Amsterdam, 

Genealogy : 

Van der Capellen, 25-30 

Van der Kemp, 1-5, 7 
Genesee, 208 
Geslacht Boeck, i 
Girelius, Rev. Laur, no 
Goekingas, 15 
Goodricke, 22 
Gorcum, 211 
Gordon, Otto Derek, 87 
Gorsel, 80, 81 
Goverts, Miss E., 50 
Groningen, 11-18, 55, 60 
Guelderland, 60, 105, 106 
Gyzelaer, C. de, 24, 44. 53, 69, 

89, 157, 169 

Haamsteede, 4, 7 
Haazenberg, 90 
Haersolte, Baron de, 139 
Hague, the, 52, 73, 95 
Hamilton, Col. A., and Mrs., 

Havre de Grace, no 
Hechingen, 150 
Hespe, J. C.,86 
Hesse, Prince of, lo-ii 
Het Loo, 97 
" Hibernicus," 182, 186 
Holland : 

Emancipation, 187 
Independence, 82 
Political events, Patriot and 
Orange Parties, 95-99, 108- 
Prussian occupation of Amster- 
dam, 98-99 
Recognition of United States, 



Holland Land Company, 134, 

I37i 138, 140, 207, 208 
Holley, Mr., 163 
Hoofman, Jacob, no 
Hoofman of Haerlem, 17 
Hooft, H., 45 
Hoogstraeten, 103 
Horneca and Fizeaux, 67 
Hubbard, R. J., 135 
Humphrey, Colonel, 116 
Huybert family, 3-4, 7 

Izard, 167 

Jansonius, Rev., 15 
Jardins, des, 136 
Jay, 198 

Jefferson, 105, 112, 147, 155, 
170, 171, 198, 199, 209, 210 

Kamerheer, 210 

Kampen, 8, 38 

Kemp, van der, see van der 

Kempwyk, 124, 128, 134, 137 
Kingston, 116, 117 
Kirkland, President, 164, 165 
Knickerbocker, Guert, 189, 191 
Knox, General, 113 
Kruyft, John de, 94 
Kruyst, Dr. R. de, 85 

La Fare, 159 

La Fayette, Marquis de, 105 

La Pole, 69 

La Vauguyon, 88 

Lake Oneida, 118-137, 177, 197 

Lake Ontario, 128 

Landas, Ermengarde de, 29 

Laurel Wreath for a Few 
Nobles, 47 

Laurens, Henry, 66, 70 

Le Ray de Chaumont, J. D., 
135, 136, 168 

Le Raysville, 169 

Le Sage, 11 

"Letter Foundry" of Colonel 
Mappa, 146, 148, 212 

Letters on the Corve'es, 44, 45 

Leydekker, Anna Catharina, 3, 8 

Leyden, 21, 60, 69, 83, 103, 121, 

Leye, Abr., 104, 105 

Liancourt, Due de Rochefou- 
cauld, 126, 127, 132, 136, 177 

Liber Amicorum, 31 

Lincklaen, Colonel John, 137,158 

Lincklaen, Mrs. John, 186 

Lindsey, 6, 159 

Lingen, 54 

Livingston, Governor, 65, 69, 
114, 162 

Livingston, Margaret Beeckman, 

125, 154 
Livingstone, General W., 113 
Loosjes, Rev. A., 54 
Louis XVI.. 106 
Lowell, Mr., 165 
Lutherans, 180 
Luzac, John, 44, 49, 51, 67, 68, 

69, 89, 103, 157 
Lyric Poem, 48 

McClure, Colonel, 161 
Macdonald, Lieutenant, 93 
Macomb, Colonel, 162 
Madame la Princesse [of Orange] 



Madison County, 135 
Magazine of Authentic Docu- 
ments on the Afilitary Jurisdic- 
tion, 58-61 
Mancel van Birum, 15 
Mappa, Colonel Adam Gerard, 
87, 130, 136, 137, 138, 139, 
140-151, 154, 159, 165, 170, 
178, 186, 1S7, 188, 189, 192 
Banishment from Delft, 143 
Death and funeral sermon, 

151, 192, 193 
Emigration to America, 144 
" Letter Foundery," 146, 148, 

Marriage, 142 
Military and political career, 


Records of, 140, 143 

Sketch of life in America, 146- 
Mappa, Miss Sophia A., 201-202 
Mappa, Mrs., 138, 139, 141-142, 

144, 146-152, 192, 193 
Marcus, P., 52 
Marguerat, Madame, 202 
Maximilian, Emperor, 4 
Mennonites, 23 
Merwede, Baron de, 92 
Messchert, no 
Militia organised by van der 

Kemp, 83-87 
Miller. Judge, 188, 189 
Montezillo, 173 
Montmorin, 88 
Morris, Gouverneur, 16S 
Morse, Dr., 164 
Mount Vernon, 114, 115 
Moustier, Count, 113, 121 

Muller, Louis Anathe, 135 
Mulligan, 149 

Munster, General Baron von, 99 
My Amusements, 16 

Nantes, Edict of, 108 

Natewitsch, Lord of, 94 

Necker, 168 

Netherlands, see Holland 

New Amsterdam, 180, 181 

New Doelen, 62 

New York, 103, 112, 116, 135, 

136, 179, 181, 182, 185 
Nomz, 202 
Noodt, 41 

North, William, 149 
Norton, Mr., 165 
Nymegen, 61, 96, 97, 98, 121, 123 
Nys, Adrian de, 90, 91, 93, lOO, 


Ode published by v, d. K., crim- 
inal proceedings, 48-53 
Ogdensburg, 161 
Olden Barneveld [Trenton, now 
Barneveld], 138, 139, 148, 153- 
Old Fort Schuyler [Utica], 120, 

149, 190 
Ondaatje, Ph. J., 87 
Oneida County, 140, 149 
Oneida Lake, 118-137, 177, 197 
Onondaga River, 120 
Oosterbaen, Professor, 17-21, 

Orange, Prince and Princess of, 

81, 94, 95, 99, 100, 109 
Orange party, 95, 96, 106, 108 
Oriskany battle-ground, 121 



Oswego, ii8 

Overyssel, 35, 46, 62, 63, 64, 75 

Pallandt van Zuithem, Baron, 45, 

Parish, David, 179, 185 
Parsons, Chief Justice, 165 
Pasko, W. W., 211 
Paspoort, Anna Adriana, 141 
Paspoort, Burga Jacoba, 151 
Patriot Party, 95, 96, 98, 99, 107, 

108, 143, 144, 145 
Patriot len-tyd, 158 
Paulus, P., 24, 43, 44, 86 
Peck, Professor, 164, 165 
Pennsylvania, 168 
Philadelphia, iio, 112, 114, 159 
Pittsfield, 166 
Piatt, Jonas, 136, 198 
Pol, 70 

See also van der Capellen of 
Potemkin, Prince, 112 
Price, Dr., Observations on Civil 

and Religious Liberty and the 

Justice of the War with A tner- 

ica, 64 
Prince, Dr., 164 
Prussia, 98-99 
Pui, Isaac du, 44 

Quincy, 160, 163, 166, 172 
Quincy, Mrs. Josiah, 186 

Rabelais, 159 
Ramboulet, Dominie, 5 
Remonstrants, 16, 17 
Richmond Hill, 146 
Rietveld, Dominie P., 142 

Ross, Messrs., 112, 114 
Ruellan & Co., iii 
Rush, Dr., 208 

Sackett's Harbour, 161 
St. George Delmina, 16 
St. Lawrence County, 168 
St. Omer, 99 
St. Walburga Kerk, 28 
Salmon in Oneida Lake, 129 
Sassenstraat, 76 
Schimmelpenninck, R., 86 
Schroeder, Nic. , II 
Schuttery, 84 

Schuyler, Major Philip, 116 
Scotch Brigade, American Revo- 
lution, 37 
Scriba, George, 126, 127, 133, 

136, 197, 198 
Sedgwick, Mr., 166 
Serrurier, Rev. J. J., 9, 11-12 
Servetus, 156 

Seymour, Henry, 137 

Seymour, Mrs., 171 

'S Gravezande, 5, 12 

Sharpe, General G. H., 116 

Shattuck, Professor, 171 

Smetius, 123 

Smith, Judge, 164, 165 

Smith, Melanchthon, 113 

Smith, Peter, 136 

Society of Manual Exercise for 
Freedom and Fatherland, 83 

South Carolina, the, 85 

Sowden, Rev., 16 

Spaen, 86 

Sparman, no 

Stadhuis of Zwolle, 75 

Stadnitski, 207 



Stadtholder, 65, 71, 90, 95, 96, 
98, 105, 109, 125, 210, 211 

Stael, Madame de, 168-169 

Starman, F. W., 134 

Staten Island, 29 

Sterne, 159 

Steuben, Baron, 148, 189 

Stinstra, Rev. John, 17 

Stone Cottage, 202 

Stuyvesant, Peter, 29, 181 

Syllabus, 160, 170, 171, 208, 

Sylvius, Mr., 102, 103 

Synod of Dort, 77 

Tappan, Mrs., 113 

Ten Broek, 11 

Thouars, Viscount Colonel de, 93 

To the People of Netherland 

[Ann het Volk van Ncder- 

land\ 54-58 
Tocqueville, de, 177, 178 
Toulmin, Rev. Dr. J., 6, 16, 

Tower and Lamb, 20 
Trenton [now Barneveld], 137, 

140, 148, 153, 179 
Trumbull, Governor, 39, 57, 69 
Turck, 15, 86 
Tyng, Mr., 163, 165, 172 

Union of Utrecht, 26, 27, 41, 83 
United States : 

Loan from Holland negoti- 
ated, 65, 66, 71, 72 
Recognition by Holland, 71, 

73, 106 
War of 181 2 alluded to, 166- 

See also American Indepen- 

" Use of Copper among the 
Greeks," 155, 199 

Utica [formerly Old Fort Schuy- 
ler], 137, 149, 171, 190 

Utrecht, 30, 60, 85, 87, 88, 89, 
96, 99, 102, 103, 118 

Utrecht, Union of, 26, 27, 41, 

Valck, Adr., 115 

Valckenaer, Professor, 54 

Van Asten, Madame, 141 

Van Bassenn, 30, 32 

Van Bentinck Werkeren, Baron, 

Van Berckel, 24, 44, 62, 89 
Van Bleiswyck, Grand Pension- 
ary, 59 
Van der Capellen, Alexander, 

28, 106 
Van der Capellen, Alexander 

Philip, 31, 210 
Van der Capellen Hendrik, 26, 

27, 29 
Van der Capellen family, 25 
Van der Capellen of Marsch, 

Baron, 25, 26, 30, 44, 68, 74, 

80, 81, 103, 105-107 
Van der Capellen of Pol, Baron 
J. D. : 

Adams, meeting with, etc., 67, 

American Independence, sup- 
port of, 36, 63, 65-74 

Appeal To the People of Neth- 
erland, 54 

Corveh abolished, 43, 63, 76 



Van der Capellen — Continued. 
Equestrian Order of Overys- 

sel, 46, 62, 86 
Genealogy, 25-30 
Investments in American 

bonds, 67, 69 
Liber Amicorum, 31 
Political creed and career, 35, 

Restoration to seat in govern- 
ment, 75, 76 
Sketch of life, 62-82 
Studies and intimacy with R. 

J. van der Capellen, 30 
Van der Kemp, connection 
with, 24, 25 
Van der Keessel, 41, 52 
Van der Kemp, Cecilia Petron- 

ella, 5 
Van der Kemp, Cuneira Engel- 

bartha, 122, 171, 201-203 

Van der Kemp, Didericus, 21-22 

Van der Kemp, Francis Adrian: 

America, life in, 88, 89, 102- 

105, 107 

Arrival and reception in 

America, 11 2-1 16 
Assistant justice of the peace, 

Departure for America, iio- 

Esopus home, 116 
Friends of Dutch exiles in 

America, 133-138, 203 
Introductory letters, 103, 

104, 105, 112, 113 
Naturalisation, 1789, 116 
Olden Barneveld, 138, 139, 

Van der Kemp, Francis Adrian : 
America, life in — Continued. 
Oneida Lake, 118-137, 177, 

Society of Agriculture and 
Natural History formed, 

Translator of Dutch manu- 
script records, 178 
Baptist Seminary at Amster- 
dam, studies, 17-20 
Cadetship and dismissal, 9-1 1 
Capellen Regent, 64 
Christian revelation, study of, 

Clergy, rupture with, 13-16 
Correspondence, 158-186 
Death, 198 
Dinner at Amsterdam, 1783, 

Education, 9 

Employments offered and de- 
clined, 16-17 
Erie Canal, original invention 

of route of, 17S 
Franeker University, 18 
Friendship with Capellen of 

Pol, 25 
Genealogy, 1-5, 7 
Groningen University, studies, 

Imprisonment and release, 93- 

Last years, 155-198 
Library, 15, 104, 130, 187 
Marriage, 61 

Militia organisations, 83-87 
Ministerial career: 

Admission as candidate, 20 



Van der Kemp, Francis Adrian : 

Ministerial career — Contimied. 
Huyzen, 21 

Leyden, 21, 83, 84, 94 
Parents' anticipations, 8-10 

Ode, publication, criminal pro- 
ceedings, 48-53 

" Pricken" anecdote, 8 

Prussian hostilities, 99 

Sale of property on leaving 
Holland, 104 

Sermons, 53, 61 

Union of Utrecht, observa- 
tions on, 41-43 

Utrecht, appearance before 
military commander, 99 

Vry Corps, 84 

Writings, 16, 44-48, 53, 58- 
61, 85, 86, 100, loi, 155, 
156, 176, 199, 213 

Wyk hostilities, 85-92 
Van der Kemp, Gysbert Antony, 

3, 5 
Van der Kemp, J, C, 179 
Van der Kemp, Jean Theodore, 

Van der Kemp, John, 3-5, 7-8, 

Van der Kemp, John Jacob, 62, 

122, 166, 167 
Van der Kemp, Mrs., 61, 94, 

102, 103, 104, 113, 116, 121- 

125, 130, 137, 175, 192 
Van der Kemp, Mrs., mother of 

F. A. V. d. K., 105 
Van der Kemp, Peter, 122 
Van der Marck, 13, 14, 16, 17, 

20, 22, 41, 44, 54 
Van der Mieden, Adrian, 49 

Van der Pot and Boon, 13S 

Van Drongelens, 7 

Van Laer, A. J., igi 

Van Loon, Mr., 100 

Van Lynden, 60 

Van Pallandt, Adolph Werner, 

Van Rechteren Westerveld, 

Count, 80 
Van Royen, Hon. Mr., 23 
Van Schelle, P., 44, 86 
Van Staphorst, 71, 207 
Van Stavoren, Grand Pension- 
ary, 60 
Van Wouw, Catharina C. P. C, 5 
Van Zelder, de Beveren, 49 
Varick, Abraham, 171, 189 
Vauguyon, Due de la, 92 
Venema's Ecc. Hist., 159 
Vergennes, Count de, 92 
Versailles Cabinet, 92, 99, 144 
Voorda, 41, 52 
Vos family, 61, 94, 104, 123 
Vreede, Peter, 23, 44, 46, 48, 69, 
86, 87, 117, 155, 197 
Ode, 48 
Vry Corps, 84 

Wadstrom, no 
Wadsworth, Col. J., 113 
" Waeckt Huybert," 4 
Walker, Benjamin, 137, 149, 

Wampsville, 135 
Ware, Professor, 164 
Washington, General, 113-115 
Watson, Elkanah, 120 
Watte, Chateau de, 188 
Wattines, de, 136 



Weeks, Captain, iii, 112, 114 
West India Company, 178, 179 
Westerveld, Count van Rech- 

teren, 80 
Wheelock, Dr., 166 
White, Colonel, 131 
Whitesboro, 120, 131, 136 
Widder, 11 
Wieling, 41 
Wilhelmina, 97 
William V,, 95 
Williams, Eleazar, 135 

Willink, 71, 104, 207 
Witte family, 4, 7 
Wittenstein, 34 
Wood Creek, 128 
Wreath, 161 

Wyk, 84, 85-92, 100, 102, 143 
Wys, Major de, 102 
Wyttenbach, D,, 20 

Zahn, G. H. C, 151 
Zutphen, 27, 35, 107 
ZwoUe, 75 

H 99 78 

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